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CAD/CAM – The end for dental labs or a new beginning? High tech buzz words like digital dentistry, CAD/CAM, intraoral scanning, extraoral scanning, 3-D milling, and 3-D printing are reverberating throughout the dental industry. It seems whenever dental professionals get together it’s not long before at least one of these topics is discussed. So it’s hardly a surprise that when close to writing an introduction 8,000 dental professionals from every aspect of the industry got together in Singapore in April for IDEM Singapore 2014 , the exhibition halls were full of these topics. Literature Review On Motivation. They were also discussed in many of the lectures, but perhaps they were most frequently in the lecture halls and break rooms of the Dental Technician Forum, one of three new tracks introduced to IDEM Singapore. While everyone seems to agree that “the future is now,” there was also some ambivalence and trepidation toward the future that is knocking on an introduction paragraph the doors of Asia’s dental labs and surgeries. The question worrying some, especially the older and more established labs and history essay on the cold technicians, is whether its arrival is sounding the death knell of the traditional, craftsmen-based prosthetics and writing an introduction paragraph a thesis restoration business, or heralding a boom that will see more demand in Asia’s developing economies? The doomsday scenario in many technicians’ minds is essay service that the advances in scanning technologies, coupled with more powerful and capable software, feeding virtual 3-D models to ever cheaper and more accurate 3-D printers, will mean dentists will be able to handle their own manufacturing needs.
According to the manufacturers and purveyors of the various digital dental technologies, that day has already arrived. The technology is available to allow dentists to scan patients’ teeth and create crowns for patients while they wait. With. A process that traditionally took weeks, can now be done in an hour or two. Instead of making a mold and sending it to a lab for scanning, a well-equipped dentist can use a variety of technologies, from intraoral cameras to CBT, to scan teeth directly. The digitized scan can then be sent to an on-site milling or 3-D printing machine to carve the of a crown from a block of porcelain, or print it from resin while the patient relaxes in the waiting room. After a little finishing and preparation work, the crown is ready for a thesis fitting, and the satisfied patient is heading back to work. This is a scenario that definitely appeals to templates business plan patients — a single visit with no need to writing an introduction with a thesis wander around with a temporary crown that offers them savings in both time and money. In theory it appeals to quite a few dentists too, as they see an opportunity to cut out the of little tree + essay questions mold and the middleman — the poor technician. But is this yet reality? The short answer is no. Any lab owners or technicians who have been losing sleep over the imminent loss of their livelihoods can relax.
It’s not that CAD/CAM won’t revolutionize the industry, it is certainly already doing that and will continue to do so, but it is unlikely that it will do so in the hands of dentists. While 3-D printing is still new, CAD/CAM is not. In Europe, the United Kingdom, and the United States, dentists have had access to the scanning technology, computer power, and even desktop milling machines for 20 years or more, but they have not adopted it en masse. Even in the U.S., the world’s largest and most technically advanced dental market, only something like 8% to 10% of dental surgeries have in-house CAD/CAM facilities. An Introduction With A Thesis. Roughly one in review on motivation and performance 10 of those don’t use the equipment despite significant financial investments, usually because they find the learning curve too steep or were put off by an introduction with a thesis, mishaps or clinical issues.
The majority of templates of a business plan those that do use the equipment do so only for single posterior crowns, and still send the more complex posterior and all anterior jobs to external labs. An Introduction Paragraph With A Thesis. Either that or they have hired their own in-house technicians to utilize the templates business plan equipment to its full potential. Writing An Introduction Paragraph A Thesis. It’s unlikely that the majority of dentists with 10 to 20 years before retirement will be willing to change to of a business these new technologies. While they might be at writing paragraph, the stage of their careers where they can afford it, they are usually put off by the daunting learning curve. As two of the world’s leading experts on paper the use of CAD/CAM in dentistry, the Italian dentist brothers Andrea and Alessandro Agnini pointed out during a lecture at IDEM Singapore that in their experience with intraoral scanning, most dentists with 20 or more years’ experience working with molds find it hard to writing an introduction with a thesis switch and the education of little tree questions often prefer to stick with what they know — molds. Paragraph A Thesis. The latest generation of dentists and current dental students are more comfortable with digital technology, as the Doctors Agnini have found at paper, their training facility in Italy. Student dentists who have no experience with either molds or 3-D scanning technologies prefer the writing with latest methods, and the ability it gives them to work closely with technicians. However, while fresh graduates are comfortable with the literature and performance latest scanning technology at the start of their careers, they are unlikely to have the capital to invest in in-house production facilities.
The Doctors Agnini can’t imagine a future without highly skilled, artist technicians helping them create the cutting-edge prosthodontics they are famous for. In their last lecture of IDEM Singapore, they assured the audience of with a thesis technicians that as technology and materials advance and make more elaborate and complex restorations possible, the role of the expert artisan technician will become increasingly important in delivering the best possible outcome for patients. Dr. Dobrina Mollova of the tree + essay Centre for Advanced Professional Practices (CAPP) certainly does not think technology can replace skilled technicians, “There will always be a need for technicians, for highly skilled professionals who are experts in the use of the machines that make the prosthodontics that modern dental practices rely on,” Dr. Mollova said. “The machines and technologies they use may change, but the need for experts to operate them will remain. So as long as technicians keep their skills and knowledge up to date, they will always be a vital part of the dental team.” Dr. John Burgess, the Assistant Dean for Clinical Research at the University of writing an introduction a thesis Alabama, also believes digital dentistry and CAD/CAM represent a great opportunity for dental labs and technicians.
He thinks this is a time of wonderful opportunity for Asian dentists and technicians, especially those in Southeast Asian countries with rapidly expanding middle classes, and a new generation of dentists and technicians coming on to cater to of little tree + essay their needs. He believes that Southeast Asia may be in a position to writing an introduction with a thesis leapfrog a generation or two of prosthodontic technologies to bring restoration work within the term financial reach of a much larger market than has previously been possible. An Introduction A Thesis. So it seems the review on motivation and performance IDEM Singapore theme was on target with “The future is now,” and Asia’s dental labs and technicians need to an introduction embrace that future and make it their own. John Battersby is a Senior PR Consultant specializing in essay editing uk medical, health and wellness, dentistry, and esthetic medicine. He is currently with Bridges MC in Singapore, where he handles public relations for an introduction IDEM Singapore 2014. Sponsored Content is templates business made possible by our sponsor; it does not necessarily reflect the views of our editorial staff. Did you like this article? Get more articles like this delivered to your inbox. Writing Paragraph. Subscribe to our e-mail newsletters today. Microbrush International launches Tru, a new disposable micro-applicator.
Microbrush International, one of the term paper outline world’s disposable applicator producers, has introduced Tru by Microbrush, a new option for clinical applications. Director's Message: What I am not always proud of. Kristine Hodsdon asks, I ask you: What would it feel like to have one more career accomplishment under your belt for an introduction paragraph with 2014, complete a goal or a contribution to on the cold a client this month? VIDEO: Apex360 digital magazine preview, interview with Dr. Markus Heibach on 2015 IDS. Apex360 talks to an introduction paragraph with a thesis Dr. Markus Heibach about the suicide paper outline upcoming 2015 IDS meeting in Cologne, Germany. NYU College of Dentistry's Dr. Stuart Hirsch wins 2015 William J. Gies Award for Outstanding Achievement by a Dental Educator.
New York University College of Dentistry’s Stuart Hirsch, DDS, vice dean for international initiatives and development and a professor of cariology and comprehensive care, has been announced as the writing with a thesis winner of the templates business William J. Gies Award for writing an introduction paragraph with Outstanding Achievement by a Dental Educator, part of the William J. Review. Gies Awards for Vision, Innovation, and Achievement sponsored by the American Dental Education Association.
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MAGIC IS AFOOT: A Conversation with ALAN MOORE about the Arts and the Occult. Celebrated comics author ALAN MOORE gives Jay Babcock a historical-theoretical-autobiographical earful about the connection between the Arts and the Occult. Gen’rals gathered in their masses/Just like witches at black masses/Evil minds that plot destruction/Sorcerer of writing paragraph with death’s construction/In the fields the bodies burning/As the the education of little tree + essay, war machine keeps turning/Death and hatred to writing, mankind/Poisoning their brainwashed minds” — Black Sabbath, “War Pigs” (1970) As author Daniel Pinchbeck pointed out in the education tree questions Arthur’s debut issue last fall, magic is afoot in the world. Writing An Introduction A Thesis! It doesn’t matter whether you think of magic a potent metaphor, as a notion of reality to rise islam research, be taken literally, or a willed self-delusion by goggly losers and New Age housewives. It doesn’t matter. Magic is here, right now, as a cultural force (Harry Potter, Buffy, Sabrina, Lord of the Rings , the writing an introduction with, Jedi, and research, of course, Black Sabbath) , as a part of our daily rhetoric, and perhaps, if you’re so inclined, as something truly perceivable, in the same way that love and suffering are real yet unquantifiable–experienced by writing with all yet unaccounted for by the dogma of on motivation and performance strict materialism that most of us First Worlders say we “believe“ in. Magic is here. It’s the season of the witch. And arguably the highest-profile, openly practicing witch–or magus, or magician, or shaman–in the Western world is English comics author Alan Moore. You may know Moore for the mid-’80s comic book Watchmen , a supremely dark, exquisitely structured mystery story he crafted with artist Dave Gibbons that examined, amongst other things, superheroes, Nixon-Reagan America, the “ends justify the means” argument and the nature of time and space.
Watchmen was a commercial and writing paragraph, critical success, won numerous awards, and tree, made the tall, Rasputin-like Moore a semi-pop star for an introduction with a thesis, a couple of review and performance years. Watchmen re-introduced the writing paragraph, smiley face into the visual lexicon, the clock arrow-shaped blood spatter on its face studiously washed off by the late-’80s/early ‘90s rave scene. Rolling Stone lovingly profiled Moore; he guested on literature British TV talkshows; he was mobbed at comics conventions; and he got an infamous mention in a Pop Will Eat Itself song. Recoiling in horror from the writing an introduction paragraph with, celebrity status being foisted on him, Moore withdrew from public appearances. He also withdrew from the of little tree questions, mainstream comics industry, bent on pursuing creative projects that had little to an introduction, do with fantasy-horror and science fiction and adult men with capes. Templates Plan! Some of these projects, like the ambitious Big Numbers, fell apart; others were long-aborning sleeper successes that took years to produce, like From Hell (Moore and artist Eddie Campbell’s epic Ripperology), Voice of the Fire (Moore’s stunning first novel) and The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen (a clever Victorian pulp hero romp in comics form, drawn by Kevin O’Neill); and still others were good-faith genre comics efforts to writing paragraph with, pay the rent and templates business plan, restore certain storytelling standards to a genre (superhero comics) in decline. In recent years, Moore’s public profile has been rising again, partly due to writing an introduction with a thesis, the embrace of Hollywood. This summer will see the release of the second high-profile film based on an Alan Moore comic series in three years: a $100-million film version of essay editing uk League of Extraordinary Gentlemen , starring Sean Connery. But like the Hughes Brothers’ 2001 radically simplified, arthouse/Hammer adaptation of writing an introduction From Hell starring Johnny Depp and Heather Graham, League will only have some surface similarity to the comics work that inspired it.
That’s down as much to typical Hollywood machinations as much as the sheer unadaptability of Moore’s comics–these are works meant to function as comics. Even Terry Gilliam couldn’t see a way to of a, make a film out of Watchmen . Moore’s comics are as tied to the peculiar, wonderful attributes of the comics form as possible. Comics is itself where the magic comes in. The comics medium is one of the few mainstream entertainment industries open to folks who are openly into what is considered to be very weird, spooky and possibly dangerous stuff. Alejandro Jodorowsky, best known for an introduction with a thesis, the heavily occultist films El Topo and Holy Mountain , has been happily doing comics in France for templates of a business plan, decades. The English-speaking comics industry, meanwhile, has always been open to these sorts of people; indeed, Steve Moore (no relation) and Grant Morrison had been doing magic long before Alan Moore’s late-1993 foray into magical practice. Comics, it seems, attracts–or breeds–magicians, and magical thinking.
Perhaps it’s that the form–representational lines on a surface–is directly tied to the first (permanent) visual art: the paintings on cave walls in what were probably shamanistic, or ritualistic settings. Writing Paragraph With! In other words: magical settings. Rise Research! Understood this way, comics writers and artists’ interest in magic/shamanism seems almost logical. For Alan Moore, as the conversation printed below makes clear, this stuff isn’t just the stuff of theory or history or detached anthropological interest. It’s his reality. It informs his daily life. Paragraph A Thesis! And it informs his artistic output, which in recent years, has been a prodigious outpouring of comics (his ongoing Promethea series, ingeniously drawn by J.H. Literature Review! Williams III, is by far the an introduction a thesis, best), prose essays, “beat seance” spoken-word recordings and collaborative magical performances–one of which, a stunning multimedia tribute to William Blake, I was lucky enough to witness in London at the Queen Elizabeth Hall in February 2000. Islam! I did not get to writing a thesis, meet Alan Moore at that performance, but I was able to interview him later that year by telephone.
We talked for two and a half hours. Rather, Alan talked and I made occasional interjections or proddings. What I found is the education tree + essay questions that Alan doesn’t speak in writing an introduction paragraph whole sentences. He doesn’t speak in editing uk whole paragraphs. He speaks in whole, fully-formed essays: compelling essays with logical structure, internal payoffs, joking asides, short digressions and strong conclusions. Reducing and condensing these enormously entertaining and enlightening lectures proved not only structurally impossible, but ultimately undesirable. So here are thousands upon thousands of words from Mr. Paragraph With A Thesis! Moore, with few interruptions, assembled from that first marathon in June 2000 and a second in November 2001. Don’t worry–these conversations are not out-of-date. Rise! They were ahead of a thesis their time. Their time is now.
Because Black Sabbath told us only half the story. There are other, largely forgotten purposes for magic… Arthur : How did your interest in becoming a magician develop? How has being a magician affected how you approach your work? Alan Moore: Brian Eno has remarked that a lot of artists, writers, musicians have a kind of almost superstitious fear of understanding how what they do for a living works. It’s like if you were a motorist and you were terrified to look under the bonnet for fear it will go away. I think a lot of people want to of a plan, have a talent for songwriting or whatever and they think Well I better not examine this too closely or it might be like riding a bicycle–if you stop and think about writing an introduction with a thesis, what you’re doing, you fall off. Now, I don’t really hold with that at all.
I think that yes, the the education tree, creative process is wonderful and mysterious, but the fact that it’s mysterious doesn’t make it unknowable. All of our existences are fairly precarious, but mine has been made considerably less precarious by actually understanding in some form how the processes that I depend on actually work. Now, alright, my understanding, or the understanding that I’ve gleaned from writing magic, might be correctly wrongheaded for all I know. But as long as the suicide, results are good, as long as the work that I’m turning out either maintains my previous levels of quality or, as I think is the case with a couple of those magical performances, actually exceeds those limits, then I’m not really complaining. Arthur: You work mostly in comics, which is interesting, as so many magicians–maguses? magi?–have been involved in the visual arts in the last century. Austin Osman Spare, Harry Kenneth Anger, Maya Deren. Aleister Crowley did paintings and drawings.
Crowley lamented that he wasn’t a better visual artist. I went to an exhibition of his and an introduction paragraph with a thesis, well, some of the pictures work just because they’ve got such a strange color sense, but…it has to questions, be said that the main item of interest was that they were by Crowley. But yes, there’s that whole kind of crowd really: Kenneth Anger, Maya Deren, Stan Brakhage, Harry Smith. And if you start looking beyond the an introduction with, confines of self-declared magicians, then it becomes increasingly difficult to find an artist who wasn’t in some way inspired either by templates of a an occult organization or an occult school of thought or by paragraph some personal vision. Most of the Surrealists were very much into literature review, the occult. Marcel Duchamp was deeply involved in alchemy. “The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors”: that relates to alchemical formulae. He was self-confessedly, he referred to an introduction paragraph, it as an alchemical work.
Dali was a great many things, including a quasi-fascist and essay service, an obvious scatological nutcase, but he also was involved deeply in the occult. He did a Tarot deck. Paragraph A Thesis! A lot of the Surrealists were taking inspiration from alchemical imagery, or from Tarot imagery, because occult imagery is perhaps a natural precursor of a lot of the things that the Surrealists were involving themselves with. But you don’t have to look as far as the rise islam paper, Surrealists, really. With all of those neat rectangular boxes, you’d think Mondrian would be rational and mathematical and as far away from the writing an introduction with a thesis, Occult as you could get. But Mondrian was a Theosophist.
He [borrowed] the teachings of rise islam research paper Madame Blavatsky–all of those boxes and those colors were meant to writing paragraph a thesis, represent theosophical relationships. Annie Besant, the Theosophist around the turn of the last century, published a book where she had come up with the idea, novel at the time, that you could represent some of these abstract energies that Theosophy referred to by means of abstract shapes and colors. There were a lot of suicide people in paragraph with the art community who were keeping up upon ideas from the occult and theosophy, they immediately read this and templates of a business, thought, Gosh you could, couldn’t you? And thus modern abstract art was born. One of the prime occult ideas from the beginning of the last century, which is also interesting because it was a scientific idea, and this was the sudden notion of the writing with, fourth dimension.
This became very big in science around the end of the 19th century, beginning of the 20th, because of templates plan people like these eccentric Victorian mathematicians like Edwin Abbot Abbot–so good they named him twice–who did the book Flatland , and there was also C. Howard Hinton, who was the son of the close friend of with a thesis William Gull, he gets a kind of walk-on in From Hell , who published his book, What is the Fourth Dimension ? And so ‘the fourth dimension’ was quite a buzzword around the turn of the last century and you got this strange meeting of scientists and spiritualists because the scientists and the spiritualists both realized that a lot of the islam paper, key phenomena in spiritualism could be completely explained if you were to an introduction paragraph with a thesis, simply invoke the fourth dimension. Two woods of of a plan different materials, two rings of wood, different sorts of wood, but at seances could become interlocked. Presumably. An Introduction A Thesis! This was some sort of so-called stage magic. The idea of the fourth dimension could explain that — how could you see inside a locked box? Or a sealed envelope? Well in terms of history essay on the war fourth dimension, you could. Just as sort of three-dimensional creatures can see the inside of a two-dimension square. They’re looking down on a thesis it through the top, from a dimension that two-dimensional individuals would not have. So you got this surreal meeting of literature review science and spiritualism back then, and also an incredible effect upon art. Picasso spent his youth pretty well immersed in hashish and occultism.
Picasso’s imagery where you’ve got people with both eyes on one side of paragraph a thesis their face is literature and performance actually an writing an introduction, attempt to, it’s almost like trying to create, to approximate, a fourth dimensional view of a person. If you were looking at somebody from islam research paper a fourth dimensional perspective, you’d be able to see the side and the front view at once. The same goes with Duchamp’s “Nude Descending A Staircase” where you’ve got this sort of multiple image as if the form was being projected through time, as it descends the staircase. The further back you go, the more steeped in the occult the artists become. I’ll admit to you, this is looked at from an increasingly mad perspective on my part, but sometimes it looks to me like there’s not a lot that didn’t come from magic. Look at writing an introduction paragraph with, all of the musicians. Essay Service! Gustav Holst, who did The Planets ? He was working according to kabbalistic principles, and was quite obsessed with Kabbalah. Alexander Scriabin: another one obsessed with Kabbalah. Edward Elgar: He had his own personal vision guiding him, much like Blake had got. Beethoven, Mozart, these were both alleged, particularly Mozart, were alleged to belong to Masonic occult organizations.
Opera was entirely an invention of alchemy. A Thesis! The alchemists decided that they wanted to design a new art form that would be the ultimate artform. It would include all the review on motivation and performance, other artforms: it would include song, music, costume, art, acting, dance. It would be the ultimate artform, and it would be used to express alchemical ideas. Paragraph! Monteverdi was an alchemist. You’ve only got to of a plan, look at the early operas, and see just how many of them are about alchemical themes. The Ring. The Magic Flute . All of this stuff, there’s often overt or covert alchemical things running through it all.
And there’s Dr. Dee, himself. One of the first things he did, he used to do special effects for performances. He got a reputation for being a diabolist just through doing…I suppose it was a kind of 14th-century Industrial Light and paragraph with a thesis, Magic, really. He came up with some classical play, which required a giant flying beetle. He actually came up with a giant flying beetle! [laughs] I think that did more to get him branded as a diabolist than any of his later experiments in angels. Rise Research Paper! No one could understand all this stuff that he was doing with the Enochian tables–they weren’t really bothered by that. But he’d made a man shoot up into the air! [laughter] So he must be the devil or something… Given the sheer number of people from writing paragraph all fields that would seem to have a magical agenda, it’s even more strange that magic is generally held in such contempt by any serious thinkers. I think that most people that would think of themselves as serious thinkers would tend to assume that anybody in Magic must be some kind of wooly headed New Age mystical type that believes every horoscope that they read in the newspaper.
That would be completely dismissive of giving the business, idea of an introduction paragraph with a thesis Magic any intellectual credibility. It’s strange–it seems like you’ve got a world where most of our culture is very heavily informed by editing uk Magic but where we almost have to keep up the pretext that there isn’t any such thing as magic, and that you’d have to be mad to be involved in it. It’s something for children or Californians or other New Age lunatics. That seems to be the perception and yet once you only scratch the surface in a few areas, you find that magic is everywhere. Arthur: You’ve got quite an paragraph with a thesis, argument going there for a secret history of the review, arts… I’ll probably get round to paragraph a thesis, writing it one of these days: Uncle Al’s Big Book of Magic. Arthur: Well, there’s quite a bit of kabbalah/self-help books out term paper outline there these days… I should imagine if there’s a swamp of books out, it would probably because somebody thought, Hmm, Kabbalah: Madonna’s mentioned it.
It must be hip. An Introduction Paragraph With! I’ve got this recipe book kicking around, I wonder if I was to re-jig it and call it the Kabbalistic Recipe Book.’Or, ‘I’ve got this self-help idea, if I were to history cold war, re-group it to an introduction a thesis, the various Sephirot, then maybe I could sell it.’ It’s probably like that. I should see what’s left when the dust settles. This is probably just a Western world flash in the pan. Essay Cold! Give it another six months and everybody will be into an introduction, primal scream therapy. Or dowsing. Arthur: I can’t think of review and performance many Western contemporary artists, or musicians, or filmmakers, or poets or whatever –who are much affiliated, at a deep level, with esoteric ideas and an introduction with a thesis, practices. Why are artists now divorced from something that seems to have played such an important part in the past? I guess that people in modern times, in general, feel just about history on the cold, divorced from everything. I think that for a lot of people of my generation, going through the an introduction with a thesis, ‘50s and ‘60s and outline, ‘70s was enough to make most people confirmed atheists. I know that I certainly was an atheist for a great period of that time, mainly as a reaction against organized religion.
The excesses of an introduction paragraph organized religion have kind of alienated an literature review and performance, awful lot of people over paragraph a thesis this past 20-30 years. I think that for a lot of plan people, their attitude to writing an introduction paragraph, spirituality or to of little + essay, magic is paragraph a thesis actually a kind of displaced attitude to whatever religion they have forced down their throat when they were a child. ‘Oh yeah I remember spirituality, that’s what the nuns tried to beat us with in Catholic school’ or whatever. [chuckles] So, yeah, people have an of little tree + essay, aversion to allowing a spiritual element into their lives. Paragraph With A Thesis! At the same time, if you don’t, there is a kind of space that will get filled by suicide term paper something. There is a kind of writing an introduction paragraph vacuum there, that can be perceived perhaps as an aching uncertainty. My parents, or, my grandparents, who went through a couple of world wars and some pretty dark days, I think that nevertheless there was more certainty in their lives. Rise Research Paper! Up until 1960, people kind of understood where everything fitted. It was an entirely kind of an introduction paragraph a thesis wrongheaded kind of understanding, that was based on things like the English class system, but I think people had this idea that there was the Royal Family and suicide paper outline, the Government, and they were running the country. God was running the universe.
Everything was in its place, and writing with a thesis, everything was alright. But, by the ‘60s, perhaps, after the second world war, after Auschwitz, after Hiroshima, it must have been difficult. God had taken a bit of a beating. It must have been a bit harder to believe in a supreme benign merciful creator after some of the things that happened in the ‘40s. Of course Church and state, we’ve had so many corrupt priests, corrupt leaders, so nobody really has any faith in essay editing the people that lead us anymore. And there’s no God there. Now, William Blake had no faith in the people that led him, but he’d got his personal vision of God: that’s what kept him going through those long cold 70 years. I think there are an awful lot of people these days that don’t have that. They’ve been alienated from it, probably because of the writing an introduction paragraph a thesis, religious education imposed upon them when they were younger. So they have to paper, carry around this kind of hole, and fill it with whatever they can. Whether that be something relatively harmless like watching a lot of football games on television, or collecting comics, or something harmful like a smack habit or drinking or all the other things that people fill the holes in their lives with.
I’d say that in a sense, artists–all artists: writers, musicians, visual arts artists–have become divorced from their origins. I think that over the last couple of centuries, Art has been seen increasingly as merely entertainment, having no purpose other than to kill a couple of hours in the endless dreary continuum of our lives. [chuckles] And that’s not what Art’s about, as far as I’m concerned. Art is something which has got a much more vital function. Writing With A Thesis! Once again, I remember Eno saying that you only have to look at islam research paper, how high a priority art was in an introduction paragraph with terms of human life to understand that it has to be there for a reason. I mean, when we descend from the trees, we find something to eat, we find somewhere to sleep, we find a warm place to shit, and rise research, then we go out and we draw a picture on a wall explaining how we found the writing an introduction with a thesis, stuff to eat, the place to suicide paper, sleep, the warm place to an introduction with a thesis, shit. Art is about our fourth survival priority. And one can only history on the war, assume that it therefore must have importance. This importance was certainly understood in early cultures. I mean, one of the oldest traditions of magic is the bardic tradition of magic–or at least over here, anyway, in Britain. A bard, simply by using words, could do much worse things to you than a magician could.
Yeah, a magician might put a curse upon you if you offended them. And what’s that gonna do? It makes some of your hens lay funny, sends the milk sour, you have a baby with a club foot: these things are survivable. But if a bard were to put a satire on you, and if it was a good enough satire, then he could destroy you in your own eyes, if it was accurate enough satire, if it was BARBED enough, it could destroy you in writing an introduction with a thesis the eyes of your friends, your family, your contemporaries. In fact if it was a good enough satire, it might well be remembered hundreds of years after you were dead. People might still be laughing at you, and your relatives, hundreds of years after you were dead. Of A! You might have become a shame to your entire bloodline. [chuckles] Now that was a terrible power indeed, you know? And the powers of artists and an introduction paragraph a thesis, musicians was respected. But like I say, over the last couple of centuries, more and more it is seen as entertainment.
When you get to the current wave of Brit artists, you see that almost the rise research, only notion of success that they have seems to be a financial one. Has this work of writing an introduction paragraph art succeeded? Well, “Charles Saatchi has paid half a million for it so I guess it has.” This is so far removed from the editing service uk, intensity of an introduction William Blake, the conviction of people like Blake or some of his near-contemporaries like Turner, people like that, they were painting because they had to. They had a vision. And the fact that Blake never had any kind of fiscal success during his life obviously didn’t deter him in of little the slightest, didn’t stop him from an introduction paragraph with becoming one of the brightest visionary figures that England has ever produced. I think that artists have been sold down the literature on motivation, river. You only have to writing an introduction paragraph with, be treated as if you are disposable entertainment for so long and you’ll start to believe it. You’ll start to feel that you’re lucky to have a job. That, alright, you’re an artist, you kind of have to go into advertising because that’s the essay, only thing that will make any money these days, but hey, you’re lucky to have a job. And to a degree I think that the original flame that’s supposed to be burning inside a genuine piece of art or piece of writing or piece of music is extinguished somewhere down the line by that kind of deal that you’ve made. It’s a kind of writing Faustian pact, really.
You make a deal with the suicide term paper, world of commerce: you keep a roof over my head, give me money, pay my mortgage, put my kids through college, and I will just keep my mouth shut and carry on drawing pictures for the front of cereal boxes or whatever. It‘s all “entertainment,” and an introduction with, I don‘t think Art is about “entertainment.” Arthur: What is the advantage to islam research, acknowledging that what one does an artist, or just as a human being, is magical in some way? Magic has given me an understanding of writing an introduction with a thesis my own creative processes that I did not have before. It has given me new ways of accessing my creative processes. All of the performances, including the essay on the, Blake one, were germinated with magical rituals. There would be an writing an introduction with, initial magical ritual where we would await divine inspiration or whatever to tell us what to do. And then having received what we took to be our instructions, we would carry them out to suicide paper, the letter.
And I’m very pleased with the results that that has yielded. They are things that I would not have created had I not been approaching the work in this particular way. It’s as I was saying to my musical partner a while ago, that actually if we continue to an introduction a thesis, get material like this, it doesn’t really matter whether the gods are there or not. I can’t actually state that this is gonna work for anybody else. I have got no idea whether anybody else would benefit from it. Obviously if you’re gonna be exposed to the world of magic, you’re gonna have to have taken a step past the normal perimeters of the rational world.
The very nature of magic is literature connected to the irrational. You’re gonna have to step out paragraph of the realm of the education questions conventional sanity at the very least. For a lot of people, that means stepping out of conventional sanity into conventional insanity. [chuckles] For me, I’d say that I’m turning out more work now than I’ve ever done before, even when I was a sleek young gazelle bounding over the precipices of my imagination in my twenties. I think that these days I’m turning out an awful lot more work, and I’m also very pleased with the quality of it. I’ve done some things in the last few years that I would never have been able to writing an introduction paragraph a thesis, imagine doing before. Arthur: Really? But you did Watchmen before you were a magician.
And From Hell … Having done Watchmen …and From Hell , particularly…I felt that I was perhaps coming to literature, a limit as to what I could further understand about writing rationally, that if I was going to go any further into writing, I felt I had to take a step beyond the rational, and magic was the only area that offered floorboards after that step. And it also seemed to offer a new way of writing an introduction a thesis looking at things, a new set of tools to continue. I know I could not carry on templates of a plan doing Watchmen over and over paragraph with again, anymore than I could carry on doing From Hell over and over again. I also know that back then I could never have done anything like, say, Promethea 12. Promethea 12 is a mind-boggling piece of construction. And I wouldn’t’ve been up to it. The Education Of Little Tree! It’s not that I never did anything good until I discovered magic, but discovering magic, or at least my notion of it, has given me a bit more of an idea of how I did those good things. What the mechanisms were. Paragraph! And it’s also given me a kind of worldview that is complex and templates of a business, elegant enough to actually file the incredible amount of an introduction paragraph a thesis information that I and everybody else living in the 21st century take in as a matter of course during our everyday lives.
Today the paper, amount of information that we’re bombarded with is kind of like typhoon proportions: we’re in a storm of information. I think most people kind of tend to batten down the writing with a thesis, hatches and close their minds to a degree. You’ve either got to history essay on the cold, shut off, which I think is the option that a lot of people choose, or you’ve got to come up with some system that is sophisticated and paragraph a thesis, elegant enough to actually give you a fighting chance of assimilating all of this information, of of a business fitting it into a big picture. Now, in one sense, Kabbalah could be seen as a giant filing cabinet with ten drawers and everything conceivable in the universe arranged in one of those ten drawers–very much to the memory theatres that people like Giordano Bruno would come up with during the paragraph, Renaissance as means of remembering anything and structuring the information. Anyways, those are some of the immediate benefits of magic.
Also, I really like the interior decor. [chuckles] My house looks lovely . Term Outline! There is a stained glass window in the middle of the room which has the Kabbalah picked out upon it. There’s a set of writing an introduction paragraph with John Dee’s Enochian tables, beautifully painted up on the walls. There’s an Austin Osman Spare on a wall, there’s a set of Golden Dawn magic wands. Every moment of my life is now surrounded by these images. Arthur: Let me get a little perspective here. Before ‘93, or ‘94, you would have considered yourself an atheist. But you knew quite a bit about the occult already, judging from some of you stories and characters… Well yes, but there again, as a writer I’ve got to of a, be interested in everything.
So yes, I was at least as knowledgable about the occult as any fantasy comic writer has to be, but it was just one of the things I was interested in. And it was something that was theoretical. My interest in the occult was: I’m interested in an introduction paragraph with a thesis what people believe. Because that was the terms in which I saw it. There was no way that I could say whether what these people believe has got any basis or validity.
What was interesting to me was that people believed these things. Starting with January 1994, all of a sudden, it suddenly got a little less of a remote academic topic for me. [laughs] I found myself in the middle of the education of little tree + essay questions what seemed to be a full-blown magical experience that I could not really account for. Arthur: What do you mean? When you’ve found that you’ve spent at least part of an evening talking to an entity that tells you that it is a specific Goetic demon that was first mentioned in the Book of Tobid in the Apocrypha… [chuckles]. Now there’s only with, so many ways that you can take that. The most obvious way is editing that you had some sort of hallucination, or that you had some sort of mental breakdown. Writing With! Something like that. Which is fine, unless there have been other people there with you who had similar experiences at review and performance, the time, or something similar. Then, when you say, Alright this was some sort of real experience, you then have to think Well, was it therefore something that was purely internal?
Was this some part of myself that I’ve given a name and face to, or projected in an introduction with a thesis some way? That’s possible. Or, was this what it said it was? Was this some entirely external entity that actually was what it claimed to be and was talking to me? That’s possible.
I tend to try and not rule out any of those. The thing that actually feels most satisfying is the idea that actually it might be both of them. It might be both inside you and outside you. That doesn’t make any logical sense but that satisfies me most emotionally. It feels truest. These are gnostic experiences: You’ve either had them or you haven’t. For example: the first experience I had, and this is very difficult to describe, but it felt to me as if me and a very close friend of mine, were both taken on this ride by a specific entity. The entity seemed to me, and to my friend, to history war, be…[sighs]… to be this second-century Roman snake god called Glycon. Or that the an introduction, second-century Roman snake god called Glycon is one of the forms by which this kind of history cold war energy is sometimes known. Because the writing paragraph a thesis, snake as a symbol runs through almost every magical system, every religion. In the yoga systems, you’ve got the Kundalini serpent.
In the Amazon Indian creation myths, you have innumerable serpents that take part in the creation. The same with the of little + essay, Bible: the paragraph a thesis, serpent in the garden of Eden. The Worm of [inaud]. The Midgard serpent coiled three times around the world. Rise Islam! It’s difficult to find a religion that doesn’t have a serpent in it somewhere. So we had this experience.
At least part of this experience seemed to be completely outside of Time. There was a perception that all of Time was happening at once. Paragraph With! Linear time was a purely a construction of the history on the cold, conscious mind, and in fact Time is paragraph with much more the way that people like Stephen Hawking seem to describe it, where Space-Time is almost like some big football, and you’ve got the Big Bang at history cold war, one end of writing paragraph a thesis it and the Big Crunch at the other, but all of the moments are all existing at once, in cold war this huge hole at writing an introduction paragraph with, the moment. It’s only our consciousness that’s moving through it, from A to B to C to D. In fact, the whole alphabet’s there right from the start. So there was this perception of being outside of Time. From that perspective, it was possible to see that all of Time was in fact happening at service uk, once.
There were other revelations. There was a lot that seemed to be connected with this Roman snake god, whose name was Glycon. Now, the only references there are to him, which are very disparaging, are in an introduction a thesis the works of the philosopher Lucien… Lucien explains that the whole Glycon cult was an enormous fraud, and that Glycon was a glove puppet. And I’ve got no reason to disbelieve that whatsoever. It sounds absolutely true, that yeah, the editing uk, false prophet Alexander, who was the person putting on the Glycon show, had a large tame boa constrictor and an introduction paragraph a thesis, he had the head of it tucked under his arm and draped over his shoulder he had a speaking tube that had been designed to look like this inhuman longhaired snake’s head with articulated jaws so that it would seem to speak. Yeah, that sounds about right. [chuckles] Of course, to me, I think that’s perfect. If I’m gonna have a god I prefer it to the education of little + essay questions, be a complete hoax and a glove puppet because I’m not likely to start believing that glove puppet created the universe or anything dangerous like that. To me, the IDEA of the an introduction, god IS the god. History Essay On The Cold War! It doesn’t matter what form it takes.
This is one of the problems that for me Christianity has. A Thesis! Christianity’s got some lovely concepts! Beautiful concepts. However, Christianity also insists upon a historical Jesus. If it was ever proven that Jesus didn’t exist, the whole of term Christianity would fall to an introduction with a thesis, pieces. Term Outline! There’s no reason for it to, but it would, because they insist that this was DEFINITELY real, he was DEFINITELY born of a virgin, he DEFINITELY died on the cross and then DEFINITELY physically ascended to Heaven. All of which sounds like bollocks to me. That sounds frankly impossible. That can’t happen. However, you’ve got this wonderful story.
This story’s got complete integrity. Writing Paragraph! As a story, it’s fine. It’s rich in symbolism, it’s rich in moral awareness. It’s insisting on this historical background that is the problem. Now for me, I don’t believe that there was ever a living snake that had a semi-human head and long hair and spoke.
That would be mad, to believe that. I believe that, yeah, Alexander the false prophet has got some really clever scam going involving a puppet and rise research, a boa constrictor. But nevertheless, that was a representation of the god. That was not the writing with, god. The god is the IDEA of the god. THAT was what I believe that visited me and my friend upon this first occasion, and which I’ve had contact on literature on motivation subsequent occasions. Now, this god Glycon was supposed to be at the time of his inception was supposed to writing an introduction paragraph with a thesis, be the second coming of the god Asclepius–this is the god of medicine, who is traditionally shown as an essay editing, old man with a snake round around his staff.
This is the origin of the caduceus symbol that you see in ambulances and hospitals. That’s why the snake is an introduction with a thesis associated with healing, because of templates plan Asclepius. Now, imagine my surprise, then, when some years later after I’d had this preliminary experience, I was reading The Collected Letters of Philip K. Dick . [chuckles] This was what he wrote during the early ’70s, just before he had the writing, VALIS experience, and went completely mad. Literature On Motivation And Performance! He’s talking in very plain terms about an introduction paragraph a thesis, things as they happen. Rise Islam Research Paper! He’s talking about an introduction with, how he’s getting all of this information that seems to of little tree + essay, be being flashed into his brain. The pink light. And he’s talking about how part of it seems to have to do with the Holy Roman Empire.
Part of it seems to be an Ancient 2nd or 3rd century Rome. Part of it also seems to be to do with the an introduction with a thesis, perception that all of history cold time is happening at writing paragraph with, once. And that, in his words, the Empire never fell. That all of time is actually a solid-state thing that’s happening all at once . And there’s this particularly little shivery bit that I read in one of his letters where he says, “I’ve found out the uk, name of the entity that’s contacting me. It’s called Asclepius.” I thought this was a little bit, you know, a little bit worrying! [laughter] It sounded like he’d had a very similar experience and it seemed to be related to the same entity. Now, I don’t know what to make of writing an introduction with a thesis that.
It seems to me that you might say… I mean, magicians would say there was a “serpent current,” if you like, an energy, that people could connect up to. And they might understand this energy in a number of different forms–as Asclepius,or Glycon or Kundalini or whatever–but it’s essentially a kind of rise sinuous kind of with energy that we associate with the snake and a certain sort of consciousness. I also had an experience with a demonic creature that told me that its name was Asmoday. Rise Research Paper! Which is Asmodeus. And when I actually was allowed to see what the creature looked like, or what it was prepared to show me, it was this latticework…if you imagine a spider, and then imagine multiple images of that spider, that are kind of linked together–multiple images at different scales, that are all linked together–it’s as if this thing is moving through a different sort of time. You know Marcel Duchamp’s “Nude Descending a Staircase”? Where you can see all the writing an introduction a thesis, different stages of the templates business, movement at once. An Introduction Paragraph! So if you imagine that you’ve got this spider, that it was moving around, but it was coming from on the background to foreground, what you’d get is sort of several spiders, if you like, showing the different stages of its movement. Now if you imagine all of those arranged into a kind of shimmering lattice that was turning itself inside out as I spoke to an introduction paragraph a thesis, it, and I was talking to my partner at the time and sort of saying, This thing’s showing us it’s got an extra dimension I haven’t got, and rise, it’s trying to tell me that it’s good at mathematics. [laughter] It’s vain. There’s something fourth-dimensional about this.
This is all stuff I was actually saying at the time, while I was having the experience, which was pretty extreme. Anyway. Over the next couple of paragraph with weeks I started researching Asmodeus and found out that actually, yeah, he’s the demon of mathematics. [chuckles] Also there is a thing which apparently, traditionally he is able to offer one, and this is called the Asmodeus flight. This is on the cold war where the demon will pick you up, carry you into an introduction paragraph with, the air, into the sky, and you can look down and you can see all of the houses as if their roofs had been removed, so you can see what’s going on literature on motivation inside them. Writing Paragraph A Thesis! Now that is not a description of being carried through the air.
That’s not being moved into a higher physical space. Suicide Term! That’s what things would look like if you’d been moved into writing paragraph with a thesis, a higher mathematical space. Business Plan! If you were actually in the fourth dimension, or if your perceptions were in the fourth dimension, looking down at the third dimension, you wouldn’t see places as if the roofs of the houses had been removed, you’d see around the roofs of the houses. An Introduction With A Thesis! [chuckles] In the same way that if you imagine a race of completely two-dimensional creatures living on a sheet of paper, if you draw a square and then put one of those two-dimensional creatures inside it, they are COMPLETELY enclosed, because every direction in their two dimensions is shut off to them. If you then as a three dimension creature were to on the cold war, reach down and writing an introduction paragraph a thesis, pick up this two-dimensional speck because you can see through the roof, which is a dimension that he hasn’t got. So, if you’re a fourth dimensional creature looking at the third dimension, you would be able to see around the suicide outline, walls of a sealed room. This was interesting, because it kind of confirms the fourth dimensional aspect of Asmodeus. I did a picture, as best I could, of with a thesis what I’d seen. I did that about a month after I’d had this experience.
Dave Gibbons, who’s a very down-to-earth, practical man, had come up to visit me. Of Little Tree! He’d seen the Asmodeus picture that I’ve got up on an altar kind of a thesis shrine type thing, and he phoned me up a couple of weeks later, saying that he’d just got this book called Four-Space which is a book about the fourth dimension in mathematics. This is editing service not a mystical or occult book, this is hard maths. Writing An Introduction! Very hard maths a lot of it, certainly beyond me. But at the end of the book, the literature review and performance, guy who’s put it together gets a little bit playful and just decides to have a little bit of fun with speculation, because whereas all of the book has been hard mathematical facts, in the last chapter he lets himself be a little bit speculative and he sorta says, “Alright, if there was such a thing as fourth-dimensional life, how would this appear to us? Well my best guess is that it would appear as a kind of multiple images of itself at an introduction paragraph with, different scales arranged in a shimmering latticework.” And Dave said that he felt the hairs on the back of his neck stand on end, because he’d seen the Asmodeus picture, which is pretty much exactly that!
Arthur: Another shivery moment. Yes. Tree Questions! One of the first things that struck me when I started to think about the paragraph with a thesis, possible spatial aspects of some of these experiences was, Isn’t it strange how many mythological creatures and gods have got so many heads and arms? What if they haven’t. What if the dog god of the underworld, Cerberus, what if he’s only got one head, but he’s shaking it back and forth through a different sort of space? Kali. What if they’ve only got two arms, and suicide term, they’re just dancing in a kind of Marcel Duchamp “Nude Descending A Staircase” kind of space, where all moments exist at once? Don’t know. My personal feeling is that you’re gonna get a lot more of this as this century starts to evolve. Writing An Introduction A Thesis! I think that we’re gonna start to look at ancient knowledge, in its own context , rather than imposing our kind of fairly arrogant late-Western, 19th-20th century viewpoint upon it.
Jeremy Narby has put forward the strange possibility that DNA might be alive, and editing, aware, and we might be able to with a thesis, communicate with it, [chuckles] in certain extreme states–and it with us. So the snake god might be a projection of the editing service uk, awareness of the writing paragraph with, DNA. This is sort of cold interesting. Arthur: You’ve spoken before about using psilocybin mushrooms in writing an introduction paragraph your magical rituals. How important are drugs in essay editing magic? You need something to writing a thesis, get you there. Essay Uk! It doesn’t have to writing an introduction paragraph, be drugs. Drugs are one of the tree questions, time-honored and original ways of getting you into that space, but there are lots of an introduction a thesis others as well: meditation, fasting, I suppose in extreme cases scourging, dancing or rhythmic drumming. Rise Islam Research Paper! Anything that will derange the writing an introduction a thesis, senses, which all of those things will do if taken far enough.
Now, for me, having grown up in suicide the ‘60s and psychedelic drug culture having been something that I’ve always been very used to and comfortable W ith, it seemed like psilocybin mushrooms, which do have a very honorable magical pedigree going back to writing an introduction with, the first shamans in of little tree the cave, they seemed to be the mode of paragraph with choice. How to editing service, actually propel myself into the magical space. And back when I was starting out in writing an introduction magic, I probably did an rise islam paper, awful lot more mushrooms. I don’t think I’ve done any actual mushroom-based rituals, um…ooo, end of last year? I haven’t done any this year. I find me magic has shifted a bit. It’s not to say that I won’t be doing any in the future, but it’s just that magic seems to have moved to a place somewhere more central in my life now. It’s not something where it’s a peculiar space that I visit through the means of drugs: it’s where I am all the time. It’s a lot more stable.
I find that whereas once I would have used drugs to explore all of the various spheres that I explore in Promethea ‘s Kabbalah series–I mean, indeed I did use drugs to explore the lower five sephirot, but above that, I’m using my own mind, I’m using I suppose it’s what you’d call meditation, although it’s exactly what any writer does when they’re trying to get into a story, it’s just that the story in these instances is deeply concerned with these kabbalistic states, so getting into the story is writing paragraph almost the same as getting into the state. I find that that, in term paper terms of the experience and a thesis, the information, works just as well these days. Everybody’s different. Everybody has things that they feel comfortable with and things that they don’t feel comfortable with. If you do feel comfortable with psychedelic drugs, then by all means use them. If you don’t, then there’s plenty of other ways that you can get your mind into that space. It might take a bit more work. I think everybody finds their own pathway, really. Drugs were an invaluable tool at the beginning of my pathway and still continue to suicide term, be useful tools, but they’re no longer as central as they once were.
The magic has become something which is much more integrated and internalized into my everyday life now. It no longer seems anywhere near as extreme as it once did. And consequently, even in writing with the books I write that aren’t overtly about the occult, magic, or anything like that, you will still find… Oh, sorry that’s the doorbell. Shan’t be a second! [returns to the phone] Sorry about that. On The Cold! It was just somebody trying to sell me housing insurance or double glazed something… [laughter] Really, when I first became connected to magic, at that point, magic was still something that was foreign to writing, me. It was foreign to my life. There was my life, my ordinary everyday life–and then there was magic. The Education Tree + Essay! What’s happened since then is that magic has moved completely to the center of my life. Just walking down the street–if you’re doing it in the right frame of mind, if you keep your eyes open, [chuckles], then just walking down the writing paragraph with a thesis, street to get the morning newspaper can be a magical act.
It’s difficult to essay editing, walk past a set of traffic lights and writing an introduction with a thesis, watch the changing of the suicide paper, colors without thinking of the Kabbalistic equivalent of those colors. What the progress from red to amber to green means philosophically, or numerically, or all the other different sort of range of things that our associated in terms of Kabbalah. It’s basically that most of my thinking is magical. Or at least my magical world view has become bigger, more coherent, I’ve learned more, and almost every event of my everyday life is in some way related to magic. With A Thesis! In fact, every event in everybody’s everyday life is history related to magic [chuckles]…if that’s how you choose to see it. I tend to paragraph a thesis, see magic, in a way, as a kind of language. I think, unsurprisingly, the gods of magic ARE the gods of language.
And magic is, in a sense, a kind of language with which to read the universe. It’s a language of symbols with which you can extract meaning from the most mundane things. And in fact it’s that aspect of editing service magic that I find myself attracted to. An Introduction! The idea of magic as some weird alien Dr. Literature Review And Performance! Strange dimension that one can escape to from this one doesn’t really appeal to me. I think that if magic his anything, it’s about realizing the [stage whispering] unbelievable supernatural magic is that in just the fact that we are thinking and having this conversation. Realizing just how magical every instance is, every drawn breath, every thought. Just how astronomical the odds are against it.
How wonderful. Writing An Introduction Paragraph With! And following through these kinds of outline beautiful chains of symbols that can lead to some interesting revelations. But again these are revelations that to with a thesis, me relate to a new way of seeing life in suicide term paper this ordinary mundane world rather than an escape to some fantastic new plane of existence. It’s about uncovering the revelation that is in everything. I find myself very attracted to the Apocalypse school of poets, who are completely forgotten these days, and in fact nobody can understand why they were called Apocalypse poets when all they talked about writing a thesis, was Nature: little birds sitting in trees, and flowers. They were all, the big totem of research paper Apocalypse poets was Dylan Thomas. Writing An Introduction With A Thesis! It would have included people like Henry Triess and a lot of other forgotten names. But what they were, what they meant by ‘apocalypse,’ was simply Revelation. And that other thing in the world is kind of essay editing service uk pregnant with revelation if you’re somebody who comes equipped with the right kind of eyes and the right kind of phrasebook, if you like, for decoding.
Arthur: And that’s the key, though, right? Which codebook to go with… Ah! Well the thing about writing a thesis, magic that appeals to me is its difference to religion. Uk! The two words are very different. “Religion” is from the Greek or Latin root religari, which is the same root as “ligament” and “ligature,” and so it means “bound together in one space.” Now that always feels a bit unnatural to me. Writing Paragraph With! It seems very unlikely that any two human beings on the face of the planet would believe, be bound together, in of little + essay exactly the same thing.
So…alright, magic is writing with a language but perhaps a better analogy is to say: Each religion is a language, and magic is linguistics. In the sense that, if you are a linguist, there’s no such thing as a “false language.” It’s not like, “Oh yeah French is real, but Russian is not a real language.” So if you’re a magician, you have to accept ALL of those religions as being…they’re all true languages! So, you get a different array of review on motivation and performance concepts, a different worldview in each of the religions. With A Thesis! To some degree I take the rise islam research paper, quantum position that ALL of them are right, in a sense. Writing An Introduction Paragraph With! In order to see truth, you have to consider a lot of history essay different possible positions and hold them all to be true in some mysterious way. Magic, in this sense, is moving between those different positions, studying them, seeing what information there is to be gleaned from each of them, seeing how they connect up. An Introduction With! How, for example, a story in the New Testament of the Bible seems to connect up with an ancient Egyptian legend from the uk, Parari Anu. And how this in turn relates to writing with, one of the Tarot cards. Which gives it a certain position on and performance the Tree of Life in the Kabbalah.
And you follow through these chains of ideas. You do that long enough, you start to get a different set of synaptic connections in your brain, different pathways. Paragraph! And you start to the education + essay questions, see things in a different way. An Introduction Paragraph A Thesis! You start to history essay on the war, put things together differently. Arthur: Of course the other aspect of magic that separates it from most religions is that it’s not based on faith, is it? Oh, no. No. With A Thesis! Faith is for sissies who daren’t go and essay uk, look for writing paragraph with a thesis, themselves. Islam Research! That’s my basic position. Magic is based upon gnosis.
Direct knowledge. It’s a kind of writing an introduction paragraph with “I’m from Missouri. Show me” approach, if you like. Of Little Tree! [laughter] I think that gnosis it’s probably the with a thesis, original form of spirituality in mankind. Of Little + Essay! If you look back at the old Gnostic religions that proceeded Christianity, what they depended on was direct knowledge of the an introduction paragraph a thesis, Mysteries, or the ideas being talked about. If you look at the early Christians, the people that were allegedly around Jesus, then you can’t get much gnostic than St. Thomas. [chuckles] He has to stick his hand in review and performance the wound before he was convinced! Or you’ve got the Essenes, with John the Baptist–they were certainly gnostics. Writing Paragraph A Thesis! Back then, everybody formed their own relationship to the godhead, which was seen as being inside them, as much as anything. This is of a business plan true of the old shamanic religions, that were the forebears of all kind of spiritual and religious thinking. Writing An Introduction! The shaman didn’t so much act as a middleman between people and the gods; he showed them how to get there.
He told them how to make their own journeys into the Underworld. I get the impression that the shaman in an ancient tribe would have had the same sort of position as a plumber or an electrician. [chuckles] A plumber is history on the cold war a guy who just knows about writing an introduction paragraph, plumbing and doesn’t mind getting his hands dirty when he’s unblocking your S-bend or whatever. Literature And Performance! A shaman is a guy who knows about traveling to writing paragraph with, the spirit world and doesn’t mind vomiting because he’s taking poisonous drugs, or getting the paper, horrors of going to hell. It’s a community thing. The later idea of magic, which probably sprung up when people started burning witches and magicians, when it became dangerous to be a magician. Which would probably have been around the writing paragraph a thesis, ooo, what, the 3rd century, 4th century? When Christian mobs started putting Gnostics in hermetic scholars to history essay on the cold war, death, Around that time there were Christian mobs that were putting to death hermetic scholars like Hypatea. Writing A Thesis! We mention her in the first issue of Promethea . She was real. She was, I think, skinned alive by Christians. Suicide Outline! And so at writing paragraph with, that point, this is where you start to get the thing of secrecy and magic, which carries on literature review on motivation and performance from that point up to the present day. An Introduction With A Thesis! “If you’re a magician, don’t tell anybody. The Education Of Little Questions! Don’t tell them and don’t tell them any of the an introduction paragraph with, visions you’ve had or give them any of the business plan, information that you struggled so long to writing an introduction paragraph with, accrue.
Keep it to templates, yourself.’ And that seems very elitist to me. I’d rather disseminate any information I’m getting by one of the means that are open to me. And I’m lucky in that I have several quite excellent means [chuckles] to writing paragraph a thesis, disseminate information that are open to suicide, me. Comic books, CDs, things like that. Arthur: Now, speaking again of the period prior to your, um, I keep calling it ‘magical awakening,’ I don’t know if that’s the right term– That’ll do. ‘Mental breakdown’ will do if you want.
It’s all the writing an introduction with, same to me. [laughs] Arthur: Right, well, broadly speaking, the stuff that you’d been writing prior to that was darker than the suicide paper, stuff you’re writing now– That’s true… I think that’s partly because at writing an introduction with a thesis, the time, during the of a business plan, ‘80s, when I was doing a lot of darker stuff, well, I perceived those times as very dark times. At the an introduction with a thesis, same time I could see that there were a lot of people around me who were working quite hard at war, pretending that they weren’t very dark times. An Introduction Paragraph! In the ‘80s, if you will remember, everything was kind of gung-ho, get-ahead, let’s all live the good life, let’s all become stock market speculators, live for review, the moment.
Arthur: We also had that in the mid-to-late’90s over an introduction with here, with the Internet boom and essay cold, all that– That’s true. Writing An Introduction A Thesis! Thinking now, those two decades were very much like that. So in the ‘80s I kind of literature review on motivation was seeing environmentally and writing with, politically all these long looming shadows and I felt that it was necessary to sound a wake-up call. When Margaret Thatcher had been in for a couple of years and we were starting to get riot police sent into literature and performance, previously peaceful urban centers, I felt that V for a thesis, Vendetta seemed necessary.
There were a lot of fascist rumblings from the the education + essay, far right groups over here. The future WAS uncertain. And the Conservative Party were catering to with, the far Right groups by bringing in pieces of practically Nazi legislation, things like the anti-homosexual bill Clause 28. So it seemed necessary then to stroke a few dark chords and try and wake people up to where they were headed. Now, from my perspective, where I thought we were headed then, we’re there now. Essay Cold! We’re in quite a dark space, particularly given the current international situation.
And I don’t think that it’s of any more use to ram the darkness down people’s throats. I think they’ve had enough of that. I think that it would be… I mean, I could carry on doing that forever, because it’s very easy to horrify people. It’s much more easy to describe Hell than it is to describe Heaven. I mean, who remembers Dante’s vision of Heaven? He wrote one! But it’s all the Hell stuff that everyone’s interested in. So yeah, I could have carried on doing things that were very dark, pointing to an introduction paragraph with a thesis, all the things that are happening in the world now and pointing to tree questions, the darkness in them, but I think that… That’s not to say there aren’t political observations in me books, but they’re kind of applied with a lighter touch now.
And I’m more concerned with trying to give people access to the mental tools to get them beyond this situation, not to warn them about how bad things are getting. Because, I mean a lot of people can just surrender to despair. An Introduction Paragraph! If they had all the information, they’d go and hang themselves. [chuckles] And that’s no good for paper, anybody. At the moment, I feel that hopefully in some of the writing an introduction with, pieces that I’m doing, I might be providing attitudes, mental tools, ways of suicide term looking at things, that could actually be of use in these otherwise turbulent times. An Introduction With A Thesis! That’s the term paper outline, plan. With Promethea , it is entirely overt. I sometimes fear that Promethea , so far we’ve avoided it, I hope it doesn’t degenerate into a dull lecture upon the occult.
What I’m trying to do is have as much information as I can get in there and still tell an entertaining fantasy story. Obviously I’m the last person to ask whether it’s succeeding, you know. Arthur: I was also wondering if, on a more personal level, do you think after getting well into From Hell, which is writing an introduction with a thesis a very dark work, and Voice of the Fire, which is business plan also tremendously dark, that you could have continued on writing paragraph with a thesis doing that sort of literature on motivation and performance thing. Those were more than works of dark fantasy. Well. Every work that you do, it takes it out of you. Writing An Introduction With! Because you’re not lifting weights or moving some heavy blocks for a living, you tend to think that you’re not actually exerting yourself.
How much can you be exerting yourself if you’re laying on the sofa, surrounded by bits of literature on motivation paper and comic books and bits of biscuits and cups of tea and exotic cigarettes? It’s not a very exertive lifestyle. But at the same time, when you’ve finished a book like Watchmen, you do feel quite battered and writing, that’s more true of history on the cold something like From Hell, which took 10-11 years, or Voice of the Fire, which took five. Where you’re in a space for a very long period of time, it does something to your head. Writing With A Thesis! It has to.
If it wasn’t doing something to your head, why should you expect it to do anything to your audience’s head? The person who writes it, that’s gonna be the person that’s gonna get the brunt of it. The readers presumably get it in slightly diluted form. So if you’re gonna affect your readers it more or less your responsibility to the education questions, put yourself through some difficult hoops. Even doing Brought to Light, the CIA documentary piece, that was quite a desperate experience. An Introduction Paragraph A Thesis! It was quite grueling. I had got a pretty pessimistic view of the world political situation, so I wouldn’t say there was stuff in Brought to Light that was a big surprise to me, but it didn’t really help having it there in black and white, things that had just previously been paranoid fantasies. Review! It’s sometimes not so much fun to be proven right. With From Hell, yeah, that was a long journey through some very dark territory.
Some of the voices that I conjured in Voice of the Fire, you know, it’s hard to writing an introduction a thesis, live with those people. Arthur: How much longer could you have kept jumping through those hoops? Well…I don’t know. I’m glad that I stopped when I did! [laughs] That’s is not to say that I’m not gonna be going anywhere dark in the future. But yeah, after you’ve been down in the sewers of sort of the human experience for a while, it doesn’t hurt to freshen up a bit.
Arthur: One other thing about your studies in magic. You seem to have done it on your own. Autodidactically. That’s true. Normally when people are acclimatizing themselves to magic the thing that they’re advised to do is join a magical order or accept a magical teacher or guru. On The Cold War! I’ve never really been much of one for that. Writing An Introduction Paragraph With A Thesis! It’s probably due to some terrible ego problem of mine or some sort of arrogance… But when I got into writing comics, I did it from just looking at the field from the outside, and essay uk, then getting me hands dirty. Writing An Introduction Paragraph With A Thesis! Just playing.
Experimenting. Rolling up my sleeves and fiddling around with things, and not worrying if I failed. Sort of paper play. This is how I learned how to writing an introduction with, write comics. I played with ideas, did these things that I shouldn’t’ve done.
I didn’t really have a guru or a teacher. Nobody ever taught me to write. It was all done by observation and then by research paper applying my intelligence to my observation. So, because that’s the only way I know of learning anything, when I was getting into magic, that seemed to an introduction, be the best course of action to take. Now, there’s the paper outline, matter of initiation. There are some people who tells you, ‘Well you can never become an initiate magician unless you are working in the shadow of more advanced magicians.’ I don’t believe that. I mean, I was initiated on January the seventh, 1994 and I believe that I was initiated by something much higher than magicians. [laughter] Something much rarer. I’m not really interested in anybody else’s opinion of the validity of paragraph a thesis my magical system. It’s stuff that I’ve worked out myself and with the islam paper, other people that I’ve worked with and an introduction paragraph a thesis, I am prepared, at islam paper, the drop of a hat, to give demonstrations. An Introduction With A Thesis! I’m prepared to lay it on the education of little tree + essay questions the line: if I do something and people… I’m quite prepared for people to say Well that isn’t magic. Or, That isn’t any good. [chuckles] I’m prepared to do it in the open, on a stage, in front of an introduction paragraph with hundreds of strangers and they can decide whether it’s magic or not.
That seems to me to be the fairest way. Not to service, put yourself above criticism by only performing in writing an introduction paragraph darkened rooms with a couple of the education of little tree + essay initiated magical pals. Writing An Introduction With! Do it in of a plan the open, where people can see what you have up your sleeve. Where they can see the smoke and the mirrors. And where they can see the stuff that appears authentic. That’s my basic principle. Arthur: And like we were saying, magicians have often done art, or performances… Aliester Crowley performed the Rites of Eleusius in London, using music, perfume, incantation, ritual, dance, he had Victor Neuberg dancing at writing paragraph, that one. Paper Outline! S.L.
MacGregor Mather did a Rites of Isis. He put together the Golden Dawn Society. Kenneth Anger, somebody I’ve got a great deal of admiration for, he and people who are slightly affiliated with him–Maya Deren–these are sort of people who have taken the old ideas of writing paragraph with a thesis magic and then thought, “Well why not apply them to the technology that we have now? That’s all that did the previous magicians ever did.” The fact that it all looks archaic to us now, that’s because things WERE archaic [chuckles] in real life. If they’d had had access to printing presses, video cameras and sound recording equipment, they would have used it! I’m sure that John Dee would have released several CDs of his Enochian chorals. We have to not be locked into essay editing uk, the past.
Kenneth Anger was shrewd enough to see that film was, in its way, as any art form is, a magical technology. With A Thesis! It can be used for the education of little + essay questions, creating startling effects. Perhaps…magical effects. I think that all of writing paragraph with this goes back to the fact that originally there can’t have been any difference between magic and art. Any form of art must have started out as magic.
The earliest visual arts we have are the cave paintings at Lascaux. Now, these are shamanic. The very way that the cave paintings at Lascaux were arranged, where you have to go through very narrow, sort of editing service crouching series of corridors almost, before you get to paragraph, this center cave where there are these wonderful animal pictures. It must have been done as some sort of initiation. You’re led through this darkness…and when you get to the center chamber, probably lit up by fire, you would not have seen drawings of animals on the walls: You would have had animals flying around the room. Suicide Term Paper! That is because if you’d never seen a drawing before. Just imagine what the very idea of representation before people had the idea of visual representation. Writing An Introduction Paragraph With! What a magical act it was to draw some marks on a cave wall and have everybody understand that this sort of humped line was actually the spine of that ox that we killed two days ago!
And to understand that a line on a wall WAS in some way the animal, you know, that’s something that we can’t really grasp now because we are used to looking at rise research, a picture and thinking, “Of course, well it’s a picture. It’s a picture of a cow, it’s a picture of a horse.” But back THEN, what an incredible leap of consciousness to actually come up with representational art, which of an introduction paragraph with a thesis course leads to written language. Templates Of A Business! The first people to do it would have been magicians. Look back at writing an introduction with, what Winsor McKay did with Gertie the rise islam research, Dinosaur , his first animated film. He had very simple tricks in that. There was one bit where he would walk offstage and this was timed to coincide with an animated figure of McKay walking in writing an introduction with a thesis and interacting with his cartoon dinosaur. Now the audience at this time, and this is only at the turn of the century, the rise research, audiences at that time, most of them believed that they’d actually seen a dinosaur onstage. They had no concept of animated cartoon.
Even though the cartoon landscape that the dinosaur inhabits has a background that seems to stretch away for a couple of miles, with lots of writing with a thesis small inland lakes in the education of little + essay questions the distance…[chuckles] And even though the people in writing a thesis the theater knew that theatre only went back another sort of twenty yards before you’d got the real wall and the car park. Somehow, their perceptions, they did not have a concept for flat animated film. It seemed to them that there must be a dinosaur onstage. These people are nearly contemporaries of paper our own, so…perhaps that gives you a way of understanding what those cave drawings at Lascaux must have looked like to the first people who saw them, who had no concept of drawing. And writing, of course, would’ve been an incredible magical tool for the first people who invented it. It would’ve been like telepathy!
You would have been able to pass your thoughts to somebody else, miles away. Writing An Introduction Paragraph! [chuckles] You would’ve been able to record your thoughts to fixed times. To actually fix events in an order. This is the beginning of human consciousness. And it is through a magical act, and research, it is paragraph through an artistic act. There’s dance. All performance would have originally been shamanic.
The first people to dance in the fire would people probably wearing antlers! In a way, everything comes from magic. History Essay Cold War! Magic is a kind of an original, inclusive science of existence, which we then break down, because we are very into reductionism. If you can’t understand the whole thing, break it down into an introduction paragraph a thesis, tiny pieces that you can understand. So magic is the first step for everything, I believe. Almost all human endeavor must have started out in an almost sacred context. And I also kind of rise islam believe that that’s where we’re heading as well.
I think that what we’re heading for is a kind of reintegration. Kabbalistically speaking, the paragraph, gods of magic and language are the gods of science. Rise! Mercury is the science god; he’s also the magic god. I sometimes wonder if perhaps there’s never been as much of a dichotomy between these things as we imagine that there is. I mean, of course more than two or three hundred years ago, any scientist was a magician. Writing! Newton was an alchemist. Because alchemy was a respectable science back then. It starts to look as if, yeah, science is the offspring of essay service magic, but science has kind of grown up, and being a rather snotty, ungrateful child, it’s now embarrassed by its parent, because Magic just sits there in the corner drawing shapes in the air, muttering incantations and dribbling into his beard. I think that Science, if it could, would like to have Magic placed in writing a thesis a mental home somewhere, or a retirement home, where it wouldn’t be so much of an rise islam paper, embarrassment.
Now, as is writing an introduction paragraph with often the case with children who rebel against their parents, the older you get the more you find yourself turning into of little tree questions, your parent… I believe that, to some degree, magic and consciousness are intimately connected. Having had these experiences with magic– or things that I believe to have been experiences –the best model that I can come up with for consciousness is consciousness as a form of space. Writing An Introduction Paragraph With A Thesis! There was a quote from the British Journal of templates business plan Consciousness Studies , which seemed to be taking up a similar idea: they were talking about something called qualla space, but it seemed that they were talking about something broadly. They were saying that this qualla space was a space in an introduction which mental events could be said to happen–which is pretty much what I mean by on motivation and performance “idea space.”
Now, to me, yeah, consciousness is a space that most of us occupy a very narrow… Most of an introduction paragraph with a thesis us never come out of our living room. We’ve got our individual little private space in our head–just like we’ve got a house as a private physical space. On The War! But most of us never go outdoors. We stay within our own identity. However: people who are creative, or people who are questing spirits of some sort or other, have to go deeper . Writing Paragraph! I mean, most people don’t really need new ideas as part of their daily round, depending upon what their job is or what kind of people they are. The same ideas that they had yesterday will probably do just as well today. Templates Of A! If you’re a creator, or scientist, or any sort of creator, then you have to look deeper . Writing An Introduction Paragraph A Thesis! You have to of a business, travel further, to find ideas that no one’s come across before. Rarer ideas. Writing! And it strikes me that since the dawn of time, mankind has almost kinda been aware of this. When we talk about consciousness, it’s always with spatial metaphors.
We talk quite naturally about things being “on” our mind, or “at the back” of our mind, or the “front” of our mind. I mean, [chuckling], there’s nothing there that has a top, front or a back! Arthur: Off the research paper, top of your head. Right. We talk in spatial metaphors. To be “in one’s right mind.” Or “out of one’s mind.” You know? These are spatial. There’s no in or out, front or back. But naturally we talk in spatial metaphors like that. I also believe that since our very earliest days, we’ve developed a repertoire of an introduction techniques that will enable us to move more deeply, to interact more deeply, with this abstract space. Dance.
Meditations. Fasting. Whipping. Drugs. Anything which will take the paper, human mind to some point of extremity beyond its normal parameters. An Introduction Paragraph With A Thesis! Techniques that I’ve come up with on my own, techniques that I’ve taken from other people.
You’re talking about creativity, and all creativity is in cold that kinda underworld realm. Another way of looking at paragraph a thesis, this is to templates business plan, say that every human being has their window onto the world, the window of their senses. You’ve got your mind and your senses. Your perceptions. That is your window onto the world. Now just as we look out the windows of our rooms and houses and Yeah we can’t see the whole of reality outside. We can see the paragraph, houses across the street, a bit of suicide term outline sky above them, whatever. An Introduction Paragraph! We understand that there is a much wider world out there, but we can only see this little bit of of little questions it. Now, using this metaphorical window, a magician is trying to, perhaps, change the angle of elevation of the window. Or widen it.
But change what that window can look at. At will. Writing An Introduction Paragraph A Thesis! He’s trying to tilt the window so it’ll see higher realms, or lower ones. That’s a magician. What’s happened to a lunatic is that their window has been kicked in . So: they’ve both got the same flood of perceptions rushing in, but the magician has got a framework into which to fit those perceptions. History Cold War! The magician has got a little filing system called “Magic,” in which he can put these various things into the drawers of it, and paragraph a thesis, not be overwhelmed by templates of a them.
The schizophrenic has just got cats with human faces talking to him, and strange shapes floating around the room, and voices in their heads and no idea where they’re coming from. That’s the an introduction a thesis, difference between madness and magic. Now to some degree, by its very definition, magic has to islam paper, be kind of transrational. You have to go beyond the rational to writing an introduction paragraph with, take your first step in magic. So, they’re both talking about the same territory. You have to be mad to be a magician, but you have to be mad in a controlled way . Editing Service Uk! You have to be…deliberately mad. It’s no good going crazy by a thesis accident! By then it’ll be too late. Go crazy on purpose, in a controlled way, and you might find that you’re getting somewhere. [laughter] Arthur: Beyond the living room, as you said. I’m on a pretty good roll here, and of little + essay questions, [chuckling] I think that I know why.
Ego is a thing that tends to lead a lot of magicians into folly. It’ll probably be my own undoing. Actually look at the track record of those who’ve preceded you. There’s obviously certain occupational hazards that you should look out for as a magician: they tend to paragraph with a thesis, die mad, impoverished, in flames–or all three. Occasionally you’ll get someone like Jack Parsons who will at least manage two out of three of those. [laughter] Right. So, Alan, now to essay editing service uk, the really important question: What on earth are those knuckle rings? My girlfriend Melinda Gebbie, she got me a wonderful piece of jointed finger armor. An Introduction A Thesis! It looked wonderful but completely stupid on its own. It looked like I’d damaged my finger and I’d got some sort of prosthesis.
So I kind of had to review and performance, fill up the other fingers. It became an obsession. It’s probably the Gothic flourish of a man in later life. Writing A Thesis! You get to a certain age in life and I find that it pays to draw attention away from your face. [laughs] They look pretty good, and also, nobody messes with you. (Not that they did anyway.) My hands are registered weapons. They weigh quite a bit. All that metal–I think it’s slowly making my arms longer…. Of A Business! [chuckles] So, picture if you will… in the cobbled back alleys Northampton, as twilight settles, imagine me loping along the alleyway with my knuckles scraping against the cobbles and sending up bright, shearing swathes of an introduction with sparks. A chilling image… You must be logged in to post a comment. Thanks for putting this article online!
Thanks to editing service uk, your work the world is an introduction now a slightly better place. Fantastic interview— now get off your butts and give the new Mastodon release Crack the islam research, Skye a listen — you want magick, here it is! starpacker – We tried to writing an introduction paragraph with, talk to research, Mastodon last year about their involvement in an ad campaign for a military-contractor-in-Iraq-themed video game “Army of Two.” (Read about it at NYT: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/21/technology/21game.html) We were rebuffed by writing paragraph with a thesis “management.” Mastodon = chickenshit chickenhawk militarist profiteers. Endless thanks for this. Thank you so much for posting this interview!
It really expanded my mind with some amazing magic perspectives. Reblogged this on The Discordian Times and commented: Here is an the education of little tree + essay, (older) interview with Alan Moore on an introduction with a thesis his views on (non supernatural) magic, words and some of the things, I also wrote about in the Scarlet Letter series (where I sprinkled in rise islam some Moore quotes). An Introduction A Thesis! I found it’s on wordpress and what better way to test the reblog functionality. Enjoy. What a fantastic, illuminating, and organic interview.
Thank you so much to everyone involved.
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THESIS STATEMENT The first paragraph in an essay is - LAVc
Representation in “To kill a mockingbird” Essay. The mockingbird represents innocence. An Introduction? Like hunters who kill mockingbirds for sport, people kill innocence, or other people who are innocent, without thinking about what they are doing. Atticus stands firm in his defense of innocence and urges his children not to templates plan shoot mockingbirds both literally and figuratively. The mockingbird motif arises four times during To Kill a Mockingbird. First, when Atticus gives Jem and Scout air guns for writing Christmas and instructs them not to kill mockingbirds. Second, when B.B. Underwood writes about Tom Robinson’s death in his column. Third, a mockingbird sings right before Bob Ewell attacks Jem and Scout. Finally, Scout agrees with Atticus that prosecuting Boo for Ewell’s murder would be like killing a mockingbird. Atticus: Father of Jem and Scout, Atticus Finch sits on the Alabama State Legislature and acts as Maycomb’s leading attorney.
The epitome of moral character, Atticus teaches his children and his community how to templates of a plan stand up for paragraph one’s beliefs in the face of prejudice and ignorance by defending a black man, Tom Robinson, wrongfully accused of raping a white woman. The Education Of Little + Essay? Having lost his wife when Scout was two years old, Atticus devotes himself to his children despite criticism from family and neighbors who think his children lack discipline and proper guidance. Atticus stands as one of literature’s strongest and writing an introduction paragraph with, most positive father figures. As one of the most prominent citizens in Maycomb during the Great Depression, Atticus is relatively well off in a time of suicide paper widespread poverty. Because of an introduction with a thesis his penetrating intelligence, calm wisdom, and exemplary behavior, Atticus is respected by everyone, including the very poor. Suicide Term? He functions as the paragraph with, moral backbone of Maycomb, a person to whom others turn in times of doubt and trouble. But the conscience that makes him so admirable ultimately causes his falling out with the templates business, people of Maycomb. Unable to abide the town’s comfortable ingrained racial prejudice, he agrees to defend Tom Robinson, a black man. Atticus’s action makes him the writing paragraph a thesis, object of scorn in Maycomb, but he is simply too impressive a figure to be scorned for long. After the trial, he seems destined to be held in the same high regard as before. Atticus practices the ethic of sympathy and understanding that he preaches to Scout and Jem and never holds a grudge against the people of history essay cold Maycomb.
Despite their callous indifference to racial inequality, Atticus sees much to admire in them. He recognizes that people have both good and writing paragraph a thesis, bad qualities, and he is determined to admire the good while understanding and forgiving the bad. Atticus passes this great moral lesson on to Scout—this perspective protects the innocent from rise research paper, being destroyed by writing an introduction contact with evil. Ironically, though Atticus is a heroic figure in the novel and a respected man in Maycomb, neither Jem nor Scout consciously idolizes him at the beginning of the novel. Both are embarrassed that he is older than other fathers and that he doesn’t hunt or fish. But Atticus’s wise parenting, which he sums up in Chapter 30 by saying, “Before Jem looks at anyone else he looks at me, and essay on the war, I’ve tried to live so I can look squarely back at him,” ultimately wins their respect. By the end of the novel, Jem, in particular, is fiercely devoted to Atticus (Scout, still a little girl, loves him uncritically). Though his children’s attitude toward him evolves, Atticus is characterized throughout the book by his absolute consistency.
He stands rigidly committed to with a thesis justice and thoughtfully willing to view matters from the rise islam paper, perspectives of others. He does not develop in the novel but retains these qualities in writing paragraph with, equal measure, making him the novel’s moral guide and voice of suicide term outline conscience. Writing With? atticus’s wisdom, Scout learns that though humanity has a great capacity for evil, it also has a great capacity for essay war good, and that the evil can often be mitigated if one approaches others with an outlook of sympathy and understanding. Atticus Finch – Scout and Jem’s father, a lawyer in Maycomb descended from an old local family. A widower with a dry sense of humor, Atticus has instilled in his children his strong sense of morality and writing an introduction a thesis, justice. He is essay editing one of the few residents of Maycomb committed to racial equality. When he agrees to defend Tom Robinson, a black man charged with raping a white woman, he exposes himself and his family to the anger of the white community. With his strongly held convictions, wisdom, and empathy, Atticus functions as the with, novel’s moral backbone. History Essay On The War? The father of Scout and Jem, Atticus is a lawyer and an extremely morally upright man who strives to deal with everyone fairly. Atticus is sometimes overly optimistic, but his unshakable hope in mankind and self-created role as the town ‘do-gooder’ sustain him. Atticus’ wife died when Scout was very small, and he has raised his children only with the assistance of writing an introduction a thesis Calpurnia, his black housekeeper and cook. I remember when my daddy gave me that gun.
He told me that I should never point it at anything in the house; and that he’d rather I’d shoot at tin cans in the backyard. Paper? But he said that sooner or later he supposed the temptation to go after birds would be too much, and that I could shoot all the an introduction paragraph with, blue jays I wanted – if I could hit ’em; but to templates remember it was a sin to kill a mockingbird. An Introduction Paragraph A Thesis? Well, I reckon because mockingbirds don’t do anything but make music for us to essay cold war enjoy. They don’t eat people’s gardens, don’t nest in the corncrib, they don’t do one thing but just sing their hearts out for us. Atticus’s advice to Scout deals with his philosophy about paragraph with a thesis, tolerance, and editing service uk, how if you try and put yourself in another person’s place, one might better understand their reasoning. An Introduction A Thesis? The title of essay To Kill a Mockingbird has very little literal connection to the plot, but it carries a great deal of with symbolic weight in the book. In this story of templates innocents destroyed by evil, the “mockingbird” comes to represent the idea of an introduction with a thesis innocence. Thus, to kill a mockingbird is to destroy innocence. Throughout the essay on the cold war, book, a number of characters (Jem, Tom Robinson, Dill, Boo Radley, Mr. Raymond) can be identified as mockingbirds—innocents who have been injured or destroyed through contact with evil.
This connection between the novel’s title and its main theme is made explicit several times in an introduction with a thesis, the novel: after Tom Robinson is shot, Mr. Underwood compares his death to “the senseless slaughter of songbirds,” and at the end of the book Scout thinks that hurting Boo Radley would be like “shootin’ a mockingbird.” Most important, Miss Maudie explains to Scout: “Mockingbirds don’t do one thing but . Of A? . An Introduction Paragraph A Thesis? . sing their hearts out for us. That’s why it’s a sin to kill a mockingbird.” That Jem and Scout’s last name is Finch (another type of small bird) indicates that they are particularly vulnerable in the racist world of Maycomb, which often treats the fragile innocence of childhood harshly. His stern but fair attitude toward Jem and Scout reaches into the courtroom as well. Rise Research? He politely proves that Bob Ewell is with a liar; he respectfully questions Mayella about her role in Tom’s crisis. One of the things that his longtime friend Miss Maudie admires about plan, him is that “‘Atticus Finch is the an introduction with a thesis, same in his house as he is on the public streets.'” The only time he seriously lectures his children is on the evils of taking advantage of those less fortunate or less educated, a philosophy he carries into the animal world by his refusal to hunt.
And although most of the suicide term paper outline, town readily pins the label “trash” on other people, Atticus reserves that distinction for those people who unfairly exploit others. Atticus believes in an introduction paragraph a thesis, justice and the justice system. He doesn’t like criminal law, yet he accepts the appointment to Tom Robinson’s case. He knows before he begins that he’s going to lose this case, but that doesn’t stop him from giving Tom the strongest defense he possibly can. And, importantly, Atticus doesn’t put so much effort into Tom’s case because he’s an African American, but because he is innocent.
Atticus feels that the justice system should be color blind, and he defends Tom as an rise islam research paper innocent man, not a man of color. Our first-person narrator is Scout Finch, who is five when the writing an introduction, story begins and eight when it ends. Review On Motivation And Performance? From the first chapter, though, it’s clear that Scout is remembering and narrating these events much later – after all, the second paragraph of the novel begins, “When enough years had gone by to enable us to look back on them, we sometimes discussed the events leading to [Jem’s] accident” (1.2). For the most part, Scout recounts the events from her childhood perspective, as she understood them at writing paragraph with a thesis, the time, rather than imposing an adult commentary. This makes the narrative perspective a naive one: often we get descriptions of events just as she experiences them, without commentary on what they mean, or a commentary that is humorously innocent. But having the adult perspective be there in the background, even if it isn’t in play for most of the narration, means it can pop out when it’s needed to point out important things that the narrator realizes only later, to make sure that the reader sees them too. The strongest element of style is Lee’s talent for narration, called “tactile brilliance”. “Harper Lee has a remarkable gift of story-telling. Her art is visual, and with cinematographic fluidity and subtlety we see a scene melting into another scene without jolts of transition. Lee combines the narrator’s voice of a child observing her surroundings with a grown woman’s reflecting on her childhood, using the ambiguity of this voice combined with the narrative technique of flashback to play intricately with perspectives.
This narrative method allows Lee to tell a “delightfully deceptive” story that mixes the rise research, simplicity of childhood observation with adult situations complicated by hidden motivations and unquestioned tradition. However, at times the blending causes reviewers to question Scout’s preternatural vocabulary and depth of writing an introduction paragraph with a thesis understanding. Lee uses parody, satire, and irony effectively by using a child’s perspective. Of Little + Essay Questions? After Dill promises to marry her, then spends too much time with Jem, Scout reasons the best way to an introduction paragraph with get him to pay attention to her is to beat him up, which she does several times. History Essay On The Cold? Scout’s first day in school is a satirical treatment of education; her teacher says she must undo the damage Atticus has wrought in teaching her to read and write, and forbids Atticus from teaching her further.
Lee treats the most unfunny situations with irony, however, as Jem and Scout try to understand how Maycomb embraces racism and still tries sincerely to remain a decent society. Satire and irony are used to such an writing paragraph a thesis extent. Scout narrates the service uk, story herself, looking back in retrospect an unspecified number of years after the events of the novel take place. POINT OF VIEW · Scout narrates in the first person, telling what she saw and heard at the time and writing paragraph with a thesis, augmenting this narration with thoughts and assessments of her experiences in retrospect. Although she is by no means an history essay on the cold omniscient narrator, she has matured considerably over the intervening years and often implicitly and writing paragraph a thesis, humorously comments on the naivete she displayed in her thoughts and actions as a young girl. Scout mostly tells of her own thoughts but also devotes considerable time to recounting and analyzing Jem’s thoughts and actions.
TONE · Childlike, humorous, nostalgic, innocent; as the novel progresses, increasingly dark, foreboding, and critical of society. MAJOR CONFLICT · The childhood innocence with which Scout and rise, Jem begin the novel is an introduction threatened by numerous incidents that expose the essay cold war, evil side of human nature, most notably the guilty verdict in Tom Robinson’s trial and the vengefulness of writing an introduction with Bob Ewell. As the novel progresses, Scout and Jem struggle to maintain faith in the human capacity for review good in light of these recurring. instances of human evil. RISING ACTION · Scout, Jem, and Dill become fascinated with their mysterious neighbor Boo Radley and have an escalating series of encounters with him. Meanwhile, Atticus is assigned to defend a black man, Tom Robinson against the spurious rape charges Bob Ewell has brought against him. An Introduction? Watching the trial, Scout, and especially Jem, cannot understand how a jury could possibly convict Tom Robinson based on review on motivation, the Ewells’ clearly fabricated story. CLIMAX · Despite Atticus’s capable and impassioned defense, the jury finds Tom Robinson guilty. Writing With? The verdict forces Scout and Jem to confront the fact that the morals Atticus has taught them cannot always be reconciled with the reality of the world and the evils of human nature.
FALLING ACTION · When word spreads that Tom Robinson has been shot while trying to escape from prison, Jem struggles to come to terms with the injustice of the trial and of Tom Robinson’s fate. Term Paper Outline? After making a variety of threats against Atticus and others connected with the trial, Bob Ewell assaults Scout and Jem as they walk home one night, but Boo Radley saves the children and fatally stabs Ewell. Writing An Introduction Paragraph A Thesis? The sheriff, knowing that Boo, like Tom Robinson, would be misunderstood and templates of a business plan, likely convicted in a trial, protects Boo by writing an introduction paragraph with a thesis saying that Ewell tripped and fell on his own knife. Literature Review On Motivation? After sitting and talking with Scout briefly, Boo retreats into his house, and Scout never sees him again. University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 10 April 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Representation in paragraph with, “To kill a mockingbird”
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7 Resume Tips for writing an introduction New Grads and term paper Millennials. Congratulations! After all your hard work you’ve finally made it – you’ve crammed for your last exam and kept your bloodshot eyes pried open long enough to finish your last term paper. You’ve got that coveted piece of an introduction a thesis, paper that designates you as a college/university graduate – now what? Land your first job out of school, of course! Sounds simple enough but trawling job sites, filling out your umpteenth job application, and checking your phone 297 times a day isn’t going to get you noticed. So, what will? Well we asked some of our favorite HR professionals and recruiters to the education questions provide their tips on how to get you AND your resume noticed. Take a look. Tim Sackett , President of HRU Technical Resources: Let the organization and writing an introduction paragraph with a thesis hiring manager know exactly what position they should hire you for.
Candidates believe we/talent acquisition pros automatically know what you want based on your resume. Unfortunately, your combination of term outline, education, experiences and life might not make that perfectly clear. Just tell me the job you want, so I don't have to an introduction guess. Shawn Rogers , Talent Acquisition Specialist, Halogen Software: Always make sure your resume is up to date, but also do not be afraid of networking. Figure out the job you want and then network with people doing that job.
Social media networks like LinkedIn makes this very easy to do. Typically 50% of jobs are filled with referrals, so the more people you are connected to, the better your chances of being referred. 3. Show off your volunteer and extra-curricular experience. Jennifer McClure, President, Unbridled Talent, LLC : Don't forget to templates of a plan include your volunteer activities and your role in school organizations or clubs on your resume as job experiences. Think about the writing an introduction paragraph a thesis type of position you're targeting in islam paper, your job search and writing an introduction with a thesis describe your experiences in similar terms . For example, if you're seeking a marketing position, share how you created materials to publicize a volunteer event, or crafted campaign emails for suicide term outline a fund raiser, etc. Help potential employers see how you've been gaining related experience through activities and responsibilities outside of traditional employment. Not all experience has to be job experience. Writing Paragraph A Thesis. Tin Thinn , Talent Acquisition Specialist, Halogen Software: Leverage LinkedIn as an online resume. Just because you don’t have a lot of work experience doesn’t mean you can’t use your LinkedIn profile to show who you are and business plan the career path you’re interested in. Help recruiters and writing an introduction with a thesis hiring managers understand your value proposition — be creative, show some personality but keep it professional.
5. Of A Business. Ditch the with “Objective” in your resume. Bailey Borzecki, HR Manager, Dogfish Head Craft Brewery : Ditch the “Objective” at the top of your resume. It’s a space waster and NO recruiters spend time reading it. We care about the meat of the literature resume with your actual work experience and accomplishments, not what you tell us you’re good at. With A Thesis. John Fleischauer , Talent Attraction Manager, Halogen Software: Don’t tell me why we should hire you… show me why we HAVE TO hire you. New grad resumes all look the of little tree + essay questions same and almost none of them speak to tangible accomplishments.
Think like a pro wrassler and writing an introduction paragraph a thesis take advantage of the three seconds the recruiter is going to give scanning your piece of paper. Also – think outside of the suicide paper outline resume . Behn Dales, Talent Advisor, HandPick Canada : Keep it simple. Don't over complicate things for writing paragraph with us or yourself and be clear about what it is you bring to the table. Don't leave room for the talent acquisition team to literature review on motivation and performance make any assumptions about your profile. Whether you’re a new grad just starting out or a Millennial looking to move your career to the next stage, I hope these tips help you reel in a job you’ll love. Best of luck in your search! Got any helpful resume tips of your own? Leave them in the comment section below. Writing An Introduction Paragraph With. Use this template to identify your career goals and research create a plan to achieve them.
Use this template to identify your career goals and an introduction paragraph with a thesis create a plan to achieve them. Teala is a Talent Management Consultant at Halogen Software, now a part of Saba Software. Tree + Essay. She has worked with teams on writing with a thesis a national and global level supporting human resources in areas such as performance management, recruitment, employee benefit programs, training and talent development, workforce planning and internal communications. Teala also has a personal passion for visual arts and design. Check out Halogen Software's new graduate careers program. The latest talent management case studies, ebooks, articles, and seminars delivered to your inbox!
Learn More Will We See You at #HRTechConf 2017? How to Deliver Positive Feedback at Work. Rise Paper. How To Be A Great Career Agent For Your Employees. Writing Paragraph With. Try This Mind Trick for Ongoing Performance Management. 3 Ways Laziness Can Pay Off For Leaders.
Get our Saba Blog Digest email delivered right to your inbox. Join over 100,000 of your HR peers: Inspiration from leading industry and templates of a business plan HR experts. The Saba Blog is with a thesis, your go-to-place for the latest thinking on how to develop, engage and retain your talent. Join over 100,000 of your HR peers. Get our daily Saba Blog Digest email delivered right to your inbox. Saba is all over social media.
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Category Archives: Religious titles. Follow AP style, which prefers phrases rather than abbreviations. For example: “She has a master of divinity degree.” (Instead of “She has an M. Div.”) A Roman Catholic diplomat chosen by the pope as his envoy to the church in a nation that does not have formal diplomatic relations with the Vatican. See papal nuncio . The highest-ranking clergy person in a hierarchical religious jurisdiction. The distinction between a Catholic bishop and an archbishop is an honorary one, and an archbishop has no power to tell the bishop of an introduction with a thesis, a neighboring diocese how to on the run his churches.
In some Eastern churches, the corresponding title is writing an introduction with, metropolitan . In the islam research Anglican Communion, the title archbishop also is used. Capitalize only when used as a formal title before a name, such as Archbishop Donald W. Wuerl . (See exception in archbishop of Canterbury .) On second reference, use only the last name. Lowercase archbishop when it stands alone. The archbishop of a thesis, Canterbury is the spiritual head of the Anglican Communion, of which the Episcopal Church is part, and is the most senior bishop of the Church of England. He has no authority over literature, other national Anglican/Episcopal churches but does hold a place of honor among them. Capitalize the title when it precedes the holder’s first and last name; on second reference use only the person’s last name. Writing With? Capitalize Archbishop of Canterbury standing alone, though, when used alongside references to British nobility. The archbishop of Canterbury is also referred to editing service by the honorific the an introduction paragraph with Most Rev. , as in islam paper, the Most Rev. Justin Welby, archbishop of Canterbury , but it is sufficient to refer to him as Archbishop of Canterbury Justin Welby . Pronounced “eye-ya-TOE-la.” A Shiite term for senior clergyman. Capitalize when used as a title before a name, but lowercase otherwise. A major division of Christianity.
In the an introduction with United States there are more than 70 distinct Baptist denominations or associations. Rise Research Paper? Baptists practice baptism by immersion of persons who profess faith in Jesus Christ. They do not practice infant baptism and generally reject the notion of sacraments. Writing Paragraph With A Thesis? They describe baptism and the Lord’s Supper as ordinances carried out in obedience to essay on the cold Jesus’ commands in Scripture. Baptists are noted for their emphasis on personal religious experience and the authority of Scripture, which individuals are free to interpret according to conscience. Some Baptists do not like to be called Protestant because they trace their tradition’s origins to John the writing with a thesis Baptist, but most historians say the Baptist tradition began with several early 17th-century breaks from English congregationalism. The local congregation is the review on motivation highest church authority for Baptists.
No leader from a regional or national headquarters can tell a congregation what to do, and it is incorrect to writing an introduction paragraph a thesis refer to any body other than a congregation as the Baptist church . Baptists refer to their church connections as voluntary “ropes of sand.” The most tangible link between a local church and any convention or association is money: Local churches contribute to the state or national organizations and are considered “members” of the organizations they donate to. There are dozens of associations of Baptist churches. The largest in the United States by literature review on motivation far is the conservative Southern Baptist Convention. The smaller and more liberal American Baptist Churches USA is based in writing an introduction paragraph with, the northern United States. Prominant black Baptist associations include the National Baptist Convention of America, the National Baptist Convention USA and the Progressive National Baptist Convention and the National Missionary Baptist Convention of America.
Other major U.S. Baptist organizations include the Baptist General Conference, the Conservative Baptist Association of America, the General Association of essay service uk, Regular Baptist Churches, the General Association of General Baptists and the North American Baptist Conference. The Baptist World Alliance, made up of more than 200 Baptist bodies throughout the paragraph with world, organizes the Baptist World Congress, which generally meets every five years. The Southern Baptist Convention, a founder of the BWA, left the alliance in of little tree + essay, 2004 when the SBC leaders accused the BWA of an introduction with a thesis, becoming too liberal. All members of the Baptist clergy may be referred to as ministers . Essay Editing Uk? Pastor applies if a minister leads a congregation. Use the Rev. on first reference before a clergy’s name. An Introduction Paragraph With A Thesis? On second reference use only the last name. Beatitude is a formal title of respect for a Catholic patriarch or an Orthodox metropolitan. It should not be used except when it appears in quotations. The Beatitudes is the the education of little tree + essay name given to a well-known portion of the Sermon on the Mount, recorded in the Gospels of Matthew (5: 2-12) and Luke (6: 20-23).
In this section, Jesus describes the qualities of citizens of the kingdom of heaven. Capitalize when used as a title or when referring to the Beatitudes , but lowercase in other forms of reference. Writing Paragraph A Thesis? Beatitude means “blessed” but can also be translated as “happy.” Pronounced “BHIK-koo.” A fully ordained monk in the Theravada Buddhist tradition; a nun is a bhikkhuni. In the Mahayana tradition, the rise Sanskrit forms (bhikshu, bhikshuni) are used.
Capitalize when used with a name. In Catholic, Orthodox and Anglican churches and writing, some Protestant denominations that have an episcopal or hierarchical form of government, bishop is the highest order of ordained ministry. Term Outline? The distinction between a Catholic bishop and an introduction paragraph, an archbishop is an honorary one, and an archbishop has no authority over a neighboring diocese. Some groups, including the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Amish and rise islam research paper, some Pentecostals, use the title bishop for someone who is the pastor of paragraph, a congregation. Capitalize when used as a formal title before a name. On second reference, use only the cleric’s last name. Lowercase bishop in other uses.
A man who has taken vows in a Christian religious, particularly Catholic or Anglican, order but is on motivation, not ordained. Also, a monk or friar who is in seminary preparing for priesthood is writing an introduction a thesis, called brother if he has taken his vows. In many traditions, especially evangelical, brother is used as a generic, friendly title. Capitalize before a name but not otherwise. On first reference, generally identify the religious community, for example Franciscan Brother John Smith . On second reference, use the first name if the person is known that way, such as Brother John . Otherwise, use only the of little tree + essay questions last name on second reference. Buddhism, the fourth-largest organized religion in the world, was founded in India sometime between the sixth and fifth centuries B.C. based on the teachings of writing with a thesis, Siddhartha Gautama, known as the Buddha, or the “awakened one.” Buddhism teaches that meditation and the practice of moral behavior (and, according to some schools, rituals) can lead to the elimination of personal craving and hence the release of suffering and the attainment of absolute peace (nirvana). This is gradually achieved through successive cycles of rebirth (although some schools say such liberation may be obtained as quickly as within one lifetime). Although Buddhism is frequently described as a nontheistic tradition since the historical Buddha did not claim to be divine and rise islam research, there is no concept of writing a thesis, a divine absolute God — the the education tree vast and complex tradition of Buddhism includes an intricate cosmology of beneficent and wrathful deities as well as transcendent Buddhas and writing with a thesis, bodhisattvas who can be propitiated to help Buddhist practitioners on the path to enlightenment.
There are three major forms or “vehicles” of Buddhism: Theravada , found in most of Southeast Asia, focuses on individual realization, with practices particularly directed to monastic life; Mahayana stresses the universality of Buddha-nature and rise research, the possibility of enlightenment for all beings. It developed into many variant schools in China, Japan and Korea; Vajrayana , or Tibetan Buddhism, is found in Tibet, Nepal and Mongolia. Writing Paragraph? Vajrayana developed from the Mahayana tradition but is often considered separately as a third “vehicle.” Titles for Buddhist teachers or masters are capitalized when used with a name but lowercase otherwise. History Essay? The title of lama generally precedes a name; rinpoche , sensei and roshi generally follow the name, but practice varies, especially in the United States. (For example, a well-known Japanese Zen teacher is always referred to as Maezumi Roshi; a well-known American Zen teacher is an introduction with a thesis, Roshi Bernard Glassman.) To determine how to refer to a particular Buddhist teacher, ask or try looking up the name through a database or other Web tool. In Judaism, a synagogue official who leads the musical part of a service.
Capitalize before a name, but lowercase otherwise. A title of honor given to certain Catholics, nearly always archbishops, who are chosen as special advisers to the pope. Their primary function in today’s church is to elect a new pope, but they are assigned to serve as advisers to important offices in the Vatican bureaucracy. Some have a great deal of behind-the-scenes influence. Most cardinals are archbishops of “cardinalatial sees” — archdioceses that traditionally have a cardinal. However, the heads of important Vatican offices are usually also named cardinals, and islam paper, occasionally the pope will name a respected theologian who is past 80 and thus ineligible to writing an introduction paragraph a thesis vote for a new pope. Editing Service Uk? Cardinals are not required to writing paragraph with be archbishops, bishops or even priests.
In the the education of little + essay U.S., Jesuit theologian Cardinal Avery Dulles is not a bishop. Cardinals should be referred to conventionally, as in Cardinal Avery Dulles , not Avery Cardinal Dulles . On second reference use only the cardinal’s last name. A denomination founded in with, 1879 based on interpretations of the Bible found in the teachings of Mary Baker Eddy, who wrote Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures . The church’s official title is the Church of Christ, Scientist. Headquarters are in Boston, with individual and democratically governed branch churches throughout the world. Christian Science teaches that Jesus was primarily a spiritual healer.
It embraces the original Christian teaching and practices of healing sin, sickness and death based on of a business plan, the church’s understanding of the divine principles of writing an introduction paragraph with, Jesus’ teaching and and performance, healing. Christian Scientists tend to practice spiritual-based health care rather than relying on conventional medicine, but the church says it does not interfere with members’ health care decisions. Christian Science worship services are led by lay leaders, who are called readers. The faith also has practitioners , who are self-employed healers. Capitalize these titles before a name and on second reference use only the an introduction with a thesis last name. Do not use the Rev. in any references. The Church of Christ, Scientist, is rise research paper, not recognized as Christian by the Catholic, Protestant or Orthodox churches for a number of doctrinal reasons, including its rejection of the doctrine of the Trinity. In stories where this is relevant, journalists should explain the Christian Science beliefs and writing an introduction paragraph with a thesis, why other groups say those beliefs do not accord with traditional Christianity.
In stories where different faith groups are mentioned, journalists should avoid judging which groups are Christian. For example, say Baptists, Christian Scientists, Presbyterians and Jewish groups took part in relief efforts rather than Baptists, Presbyterians and non-Christians, including Christian Scientists and Jews, took part in relief efforts. The terms Christian Science Church or Churches of Christ, Scientist, are acceptable in all references. Templates Business? The church subsidizes the international newspaper The Christian Science Monitor . Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Members of the church are called Mormons or Latter-day Saints ; either is acceptable.
It is preferable to use the church’s entire name, the Church of Jesus Christ of writing an introduction a thesis, Latter-day Saints , on first reference. The LDS church has asked not to be referred to as the Mormon Church but does not object to essay adherents being referred to as Mormons . Mormon, LDS and Latter-day Saint can all be used as adjectives, as in Mormon beliefs or LDS practices . The church was founded in with, 1830 by Joseph Smith, a farm boy in upstate New York. Smith said he was directed to a set of golden plates that contained a record of ancient inhabitants of the Americas who had migrated from Jerusalem. Smith said he translated this record with divine help and published it as the Book of Mormon. The book tells of a visit by the resurrected Jesus to these inhabitants in term, the Western Hemisphere, which is writing paragraph a thesis, why its subtitle reads “Another Testament of Jesus Christ.” Mormons believe that Smith had a vision of God and Jesus Christ and that the church he founded is the restoration of true Christianity. In the 19th century, Mormons were persecuted for their beliefs and eventually fled to Utah, where they could practice their faith in peace.
Because of their extra-biblical scriptures and beliefs about God and Jesus (they reject the Nicene Creed, for example), Catholic, Orthodox and Protestant churches do not regard Mormons as Christian. In stories where that is relevant, journalists should explain why Mormons regard themselves as Christian and essay editing uk, why other groups say their beliefs do not accord with traditional Christianity. In stories where different faith groups are mentioned, journalists should avoid judging which groups are Christian. An Introduction With? For example, say: Baptists, Mormons, Presbyterians, Seventh-day Adventists and Jewish groups took part in templates, relief efforts rather than Baptists, Presbyterians, Seventh-day Adventists and non-Christians, including Mormons and Jews, took part in writing with, relief efforts . The church has headquarters in literature on motivation and performance, Salt Lake City and is highly structured. All worthy males, 12 and older, can be ordained to the priesthood; women are not ordained but can serve in leadership and writing with a thesis, other positions in term outline, the all-volunteer clergy. The top authority is the “prophet, seer and revelator,” a position held by the most senior apostle, who has the title of church president. Paragraph With A Thesis? He is literature, joined by two counselors, who constitute the governing First Presidency. When the president dies, the First Presidency is writing with a thesis, dissolved and the senior member of the Quorum of the templates business Twelve Apostles becomes the new president. Under the an introduction First Presidency is the three-member Presiding Bishopric, which governs in and performance, temporal affairs. An Introduction? There is also the First Quorum of Seventy, which oversees missionary work and other aspects of church governance.
The church is divided into territories called stakes, and each stake is headed by a president, two counselors and a stake high council. Individual congregations are called wards. The leader of a ward holds the editing service title of an introduction paragraph a thesis, bishop. The only formal titles in the LDS church are president for the head of the First Presidency, apostle , bishop and history essay, elder . Female leaders are called sisters. Writing An Introduction A Thesis? Capitalize all formal titles before a name on first reference, and only use the person’s last name on essay editing service uk, second reference. The terms minister and the Rev. are not used. There is no central headquarters or organization for the Churches of Christ, as each congregation is an introduction paragraph with a thesis, autonomous. History Essay On The Cold War? Members have traditionally regarded their churches as a restoration of the New Testament church. They typically do not use instrumental music in worship because, they say, the New Testament does not command it, and whatever is not commanded is forbidden.
Baptism by an introduction with immersion is generally regarded as essential for salvation. The minister of a congregation is essay editing, addressed by members as Brother. An Introduction Paragraph With A Thesis? Do not use the honorific the Rev. for Church of term paper outline, Christ ministers. Do not refer to the space for worship as a sanctuary ; auditorium is usually preferred. Do not refer to the Communion table as an altar ; use Communion table . Priests, ministers, rabbis and others who are ordained by specific religious bodies to perform official duties. Paragraph? Most denominations have specific requirements for education, training and history essay cold, the selection process. The singular form is cleric . The title of the leader of Tibetan Buddhism and the spiritual and paragraph, (now exiled) political leader of the people of review, Tibet. Dalai Lama is a title rather than a name, but it is all that is used when referring to writing paragraph with a thesis the man. Capitalize when referring to the person who currently holds the title; lowercase when referring to of a the title in general. Each dalai lama is considered to be the reincarnation of the last; the current, 14th Dalai Lama left Tibet in 1959 after China’s invasion and writing an introduction with a thesis, resides in Dharamsala, India. Tibetan Buddhists address him as Your Holiness and refer to him in writing as His Holiness . A group of Christian churches that do not recognize the templates business authority of the pope in Rome, but, like the Roman Catholic Church, have roots in the earliest days of writing an introduction paragraph a thesis, Christianity.
The Eastern Orthodox churches split from the Western church in the Great Schism of 1054, primarily over papal authority and whether the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father (as the Orthodox believe) or from the Father and islam, Son (as the Catholics believe). Included in the Eastern Orthodox churches are the Greek Orthodox, Russian Orthodox and Armenian Orthodox, as well as other, smaller churches based on the nationalities of various ethnic groups such as Bulgarians, Romanians and Syrians. Eastern Orthodox clergy comparable to Catholic archbishops are known as patriarchs or metropolitans . They recognize the writing paragraph with patriarch of Constantinople, now Istanbul, as their leader. He has the power to convene councils, but he does not have authority over the activities of the other archbishops. The patriarch of Constantinople is known as the ecumenical patriarch.
Working with the archbishop are other archbishops, bishops, priests and deacons. Archbishops and bishops frequently follow a monastic tradition in which they are known only by a first name. When no last name is editing uk, used, repeat the writing paragraph with title before the name in subsequent references. Archbishop may be replaced by the Most Rev. on first reference. Use the islam Rev. before the name of a priest on paragraph with, first reference. Essay Editing Service? On second reference use only the cleric’s last name. The churches have their own traditions on matters such as married clergy; for example, a married man may be ordained, but a priest may not marry after ordination.
In the United States, the largest Eastern Orthodox church is the an introduction paragraph with Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America, followed by the Orthodox Church in America. The Episcopal Church is part of the research Anglican Communion. Officially called the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America. Episcopal Church is acceptable in all references. Two bodies govern the church nationally — the permanent Executive Council and the General Convention, which meets every three years. One bishop holds the title of presiding bishop . The General Convention determines national policies, and all acts must pass its House of Bishops and House of Deputies.
Under the council are provinces, dioceses or missionary districts, local parishes and local missions. A province is composed of several dioceses and has a synod made up of a house of with a thesis, bishops and a house of deputies. Within a diocese, a bishop is the principal official and is helped by of little the Diocesan Convention, which is made up of all clergy in the diocese and lay representatives from paragraph, each parish. A vestry, composed of the suicide term paper rector and lay members elected by the congregation, governs the parish or local church. Among Protestant churches, the Episcopal Church has titles that are particularly challenging. Capitalize titles before a name but lowercase otherwise. Note that some positions have more than one title or honorific. Because some U.S. Writing An Introduction Paragraph A Thesis? congregations have broken ties with the editing Episcopal Church and affiliated with Anglican bishops, be sure to make clear in stories about such disputes whether a bishop is Anglican or Episcopal. The presiding bishop is the chief pastor and primate who leads the national Episcopal Church. Writing With? She is addressed as the Most Rev. All other bishops use the title the Rt.
Rev. before their name. Priests and deacons use the title the review Rev . Writing An Introduction? Priests who head a chapter, or governing body of a cathedral, are called deans and are addressed as the Very Rev . Archdeacons are addressed with the honorific the Venerable , as in the Venerable Jill Smith . Women and men in religious communities are called brother or sister and may be ordained. Use the Rev . in first reference before the on the cold names of Episcopal, Orthodox and Roman Catholic priests. On second reference use only the cleric’s last name. Use Father before a name only in writing paragraph a thesis, direct quotations. The most supreme religious leader. One can be a grand mufti of a city, region or country. Suicide Outline? It is a title used mostly by Sunnis.
Capitalize when used before a name. A Sikh leader trained in all aspects of maintaining gurdwara decorum, including reading from and caring for Guru Granth Sahib. Sikhs often use the terms granthi , gyaani and raagi interchangeably. A granthi is not clergy. Terms such as priest and an introduction a thesis, minister are not applicable. Pronounced “GOO-roo.” Broadly used to refer to editing uk a teacher of an introduction paragraph, any subject, but especially of spiritual matters. Rise Islam? In Hinduism, one’s spiritual guru is seen to be a representative of the an introduction a thesis divine, through whom one is given the teachings and practices necessary for enlightenment. Pronounced “ee-MAHM.” In everyday use, any person who leads a congregational prayer. Templates Plan? Traditionally, only men have been imams, although women are allowed to serve as imams for other women. To lead prayers, one does not have to writing a thesis be a cleric.
In a more formal sense, an the education of little questions imam is a religious leader, but can also be a political leader. Many Shiites believe imams are intercessors with God; many also believe in the Twelve Imams, descendants of Prophet Muhammad whom they consider his rightful successors. The Twelfth Imam disappeared from the world in 873, but followers of Twelve Imams Shiism believe that he is still alive and paragraph, will return as the Mahdi, or “the guided one,” who will restore righteousness before the end of the world. Essay On The War? On first reference, uppercase imam when preceding a proper name. On second reference, use only the person’s last name. Uppercase imam when referencing the Twelve Imams. Religion founded in seventh-century Mecca by the Prophet Muhammad, who said Allah (God), through the writing an introduction with Angel Gabriel, revealed the Quran to him between 610 and 632, the year of literature and performance, his death. Followers of Islam are called Muslims . They worship in a mosque, and their weekly holy day is writing an introduction, Friday. Islam is the second-largest religion in the world, after Christianity. After Muhammad’s death, Islam split into two distinct branches — Sunni and Shiite — in an argument over who would succeed him. Sunnis make up an estimated 85 percent of all Muslims.
Shiites are the essay majority in Iran, Iraq, Lebanon and Bahrain, while Sunnis are the majority in writing an introduction paragraph a thesis, other Islamic countries. In Sunni and Shiite Islam, there are various madhhabs, or schools of thought, and other theological traditions. There is no central religious authority, so theological and legal interpretations can vary from region to region, country to country and even mosque to mosque. Capitalize all Islamic titles when used before a name and lowercase otherwise. Use the title and templates of a plan, name on first reference and only the person’s last name after that. Shiites and Sunnis use a few of the same religious titles but differ on others. Shiites have a more-defined hierarchy than Sunnis. Writing An Introduction Paragraph A Thesis? For example, Sunnis call people who lead congregational prayers imams , while Shiites almost exclusively reserve imam to refer to any of the term 12 descendants of the Prophet Muhammad who Shiites believe were his rightful successors. Sheikh , on the other hand, is used in both communities, but can be used either as term of respect — to address older men, for example — or for with a thesis, a formally trained scholar. Among Sufi Muslims, sheikh holds a more exclusive status that is reserved for highly trained scholars and heads of service uk, Sufi orders. Among Shiites, mullahs are lower-level clergy who generally have only rudimentary religious education.
A hujjat al-Islam is more learned than a mullah but does not have the authority to with a thesis issue legal rulings. Mujtahids and history on the cold, faqihs are jurists with the authority to issue rulings. A higher-level mujtahid is a marja , the most educated of whom are called ayatollahs . In addition to an introduction with imam and sheikh , Sunni titles include mufti and grand mufti , which indicate a higher status usually conferred by an institution. Grand muftis are usually the top religious scholar in a country. Because the Quran is in templates business, Arabic, it is writing paragraph a thesis, a common misconception that all Arabs are Muslim and all Muslims are Arab; neither is true. A member of the laity, rather than the clergy. The terms lay person and lay people are each two words. Layman and paper outline, laywoman , however, are each one word. In the Eastern Catholic and Orthodox churches, a metropolitan heads an ecclesiastical province, a metropolitan see, and ranks below the patriarch.
In Orthodoxy, a metropolitan is said to writing paragraph with govern a metropolia , while the Eastern Catholics call it an archeparchy . In the Western churches, the corresponding terms are archbishop and archdiocese . Most Protestant denominations use the term minister to describe their clergy, but it is not a formal title and is not capitalized. It is also used in Catholicism, with a strong distinction drawn between ordained ministers (priests and history essay on the war, deacons) and lay ministers (including, for an introduction a thesis, example, Eucharistic ministers, who take Communion to the sick, and on motivation and performance, youth ministers). The Nation of Islam also uses the term, and in that case it is writing paragraph, a title and paper, should be capitalized before the person’s name. A term often applied to writing a thesis any man in a religious order, it should be restricted to members of contemplative orders, such as Benedictines, Cistercians and Carthusians. Friar is the name given to members of the mendicant orders, such as the of little + essay Dominicans, Franciscans, Augustinians and Carmelites, which are pledged to live on free-will offerings. Brother is a title given to laymen who take vows as members of religious communities. Monks and friars can be, but often are not, ordained priests. Writing An Introduction Paragraph With A Thesis? Brothers remain in the lay state but as vowed members of the community.
All monks, friars and brothers who are not ordained can be addressed as Brother in conversation and on first reference, such as Brother John Doe . On second reference, continue to use Brother and the first name if the person is known that way, such as Brother John . Templates Plan? Otherwise, use only the last name on an introduction paragraph with, second reference. An honorary title given to some diocesan priests by the pope. Literature Review And Performance? Capitalize before the name on first reference. Writing An Introduction Paragraph With? Do not use the abbreviation Msgr . or the titles the Very Rev. or the Rt. Rev. Editor’s note : While the Catholic Encyclopedia disputes this definition, the CNS Stylebook and other Catholic reference books mirror the above definition. A Shiite term for lower-level clergy. Capitalize the title when it precedes a name. Generally, the the education tree + essay questions head minister or priest of a Christian church, although in some denominations any ordained minister is called pastor . It means shepherd and is also used in reference to bishops and to the pope.
One of the ancient fathers of Judaism and Christianity — Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. In the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox churches, a patriarch is the highest-ranking bishop. Writing An Introduction With? Capitalize if used before a name. In the Roman Catholic Church, the patriarch is the editing service bishop of Rome and is called pope. Unlike the pope, who has jurisdiction over writing an introduction paragraph with, all Roman Catholic territories, the authority of Eastern and Oriental patriarchs is the education, more limited. They have a great deal of enforceable jurisdiction in their own territories but no authority over each other’s. A religious title used by a variety of traditions, including Santeria, Wicca, paganism and writing with, neo-paganism.
Christian traditions that ordain women to the priesthood, such as the Episcopal Church, call them priests . Hebrew word for teacher and the title used by Jewish clergy. On first reference, capitalize before a name. Cold War? On second reference use only the cleric’s last name. Guidance on paragraph, titles in specific faith traditions can be found below. More explanation is usually offered under the individual entry on that group, or, sometimes, under an entry on the title itself. Not all faith traditions are listed here. This entry highlights the major religious traditions as well as traditions in which titles are likely to essay on the be unfamiliar to many journalists. For all faiths, the title Dr . is generally not used before the an introduction with a thesis names of scholars or clergy who hold academic doctorates. If the person’s academic credentials are important to rise islam research paper the story, it is better to an introduction a thesis give specifics, as in Jane Doe, who holds a doctorate in systematic theology, led the of a business plan discussion . Never combine Dr . with other titles, such as the Rev.
Dr. Baptist churches: All members of the Baptist clergy may be referred to as ministers . Pastor applies if a minister leads a congregation. Use the Rev. on first reference before a clergy’s name. On second reference use only the last name. Buddhism: Titles for Buddhist teachers or masters are capitalized when used with a name but lowercase otherwise. The title of lama generally precedes a name; rinpoche , sensei and an introduction with, roshi generally follow the name, but practice varies, especially in the United States. (For example, a well-known Japanese Zen teacher is literature, always referred to with as Maezumi Roshi; a well-known American Zen teacher is Roshi Bernard Glassman.) To determine how to refer to a particular Buddhist teacher, ask or try looking up the name through a database or other Web tool. Teachers may be addressed by their titles (e.g., “Rinpoche, may I ask a question?”). Dalai Lama is capitalized when referring to the man who holds the title and templates business plan, no name is used; dalai lama is lowercase otherwise. Buddhists address the Dalai Lama as Your Holiness in person and His Holiness in writing. Ordained monks in Theravada Buddhism are given the honorific Venerable before their names. Church of Christ, Scientist: This denomination, also called the Christian Science Church, has lay leaders called readers who lead its worship services.
The faith also has practitioners , who are self-employed healers. An Introduction Paragraph A Thesis? Capitalize these titles before a name, and on second reference use only the last name. Templates Of A Business? Do not use the Rev . in any references. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints: Apostle is a title used for the church’s highest-ranking members. The senior, or longest-serving, apostle serves as the church president and carries that title. Other titles used by Mormons are bishop , elder and sister . Capitalize all of writing with a thesis, these when used before a name. The terms minister and the Rev . are not used. Eastern Orthodox churches: The patriarch of Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) is rise islam, known as the ecumenical patriarch ; he is regarded as “the first among equals.” Capitalize this title if used before a name, but not otherwise. In the Eastern Catholic and writing paragraph, Orthodox churches, a metropolitan heads an ecclesiastical province, a metropolitan see, and essay, ranks below the patriarch. Capitalize metropolitan when used as a title before a name.
Eastern Orthodox archbishops and bishops frequently follow a monastic tradition in which they are known only by a first name. In those cases, repeat the title before the name in subsequent references. Writing An Introduction With A Thesis? Archbishop may be replaced by the Most Rev . on first reference. Use the Rev . before the name of a priest on paper, first reference; on second reference use only his last name. Episcopal Church: Among Protestant churches, the Episcopal Church has titles that are particularly challenging. Capitalize titles before a name but lowercase otherwise. An Introduction Paragraph With A Thesis? Note that some positions have more than one title or honorific. Because some U.S. congregations have broken ties with the Episcopal Church and affiliated with Anglican bishops, be sure to make clear in stories about such disputes whether a bishop is Anglican or Episcopal. The presiding bishop is the chief pastor and primate who leads the national Episcopal Church. She is addressed as the Most Rev . All other bishops use the title the Rt. On The? Rev. Writing Paragraph? before their name.
Priests and deacons use the title the Rev . Priests who head a chapter, or governing body of a cathedral, are called deans and are addressed as the Very Rev . Rise? Archdeacons are addressed with the honorific the an introduction paragraph with a thesis Venerable , as in the Venerable Jill Smith . Women and men in religious communities are called brother or sister and may be ordained. A diocesan bishop has jurisdiction over a diocese and is sometimes known as the Ordinary . They may be assisted by other bishops, known as bishops suffragan . In addition, bishops who retire or resign from their diocese may assist in another diocese in some capacity; the essay editing service church variously refers to them as assistant bishops, bishops assisting or assisting bishops . The archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual head of the Anglican Communion, of which the Episcopal Church is part. Capitalize the title when used before the holder’s name. With A Thesis? He is also referred to essay cold by the honorific the Most Rev ., as in writing, the Most Rev. Justin Welby , archbishop of Canterbury , but it is templates business, sufficient to refer to paragraph a thesis him as Archbishop of Canterbury Justin Welby . Hinduism: Hindus have no formal clergy but do have spiritual teachers, or gurus. Capitalize guru before a name on first reference, and use only the last name on second reference. Term Outline? Swami is writing with a thesis, a title of respect and reverence conferred on a religious teacher and, in particular, one who has taken vows of celibacy and renunciation; it, too, should be capitalized before a name.
Islam: Capitalize all Islamic titles when used before a name and suicide term paper outline, lowercase otherwise. Use the title and name on first reference and only the person’s last name after that. Shiites and Sunnis use a few of the with a thesis same religious titles but differ on others. Shiites have a more-defined hierarchy than Sunnis. For example, Sunnis call people who lead congregational prayers imams , while Shiites almost exclusively reserve imam to refer to any of the 12 descendants of the Prophet Muhammad who Shiites believe were his rightful successors. Essay Cold? Sheikh , on the other hand, is used in both communities, but can be used either as a term of respect – to an introduction paragraph with a thesis address older men, for example — or for a formally trained scholar. Among Sufi Muslims, sheikh holds a more exclusive status that is service, reserved for highly trained scholars and heads of Sufi orders.
Among Shiites, mullahs are lower-level clergy who generally have only rudimentary religious education. A hujjat al-Islam is writing paragraph a thesis, more learned than a mullah but does not have the authority to issue legal rulings. Mujtahids and on the, faqihs are jurists with the authority to issue rulings. A higher-level mujtahid is a marja, the an introduction most educated of whom are called ayatollahs . In addition to history on the cold war imam and sheikh , Sunni titles include mufti and grand mufti , which indicate a higher status usually conferred by an institution. Grand muftis are usually the top religious scholar in writing paragraph a thesis, a country. Jehovah’s Witnesses: Jehovah’s Witnesses have no formal clergy titles and do not use honorifics such as the of little Rev . They refer to an introduction paragraph baptized members who evangelize as publishers and those who devote greater time to ministry activities as regular pioneers . Full-time workers are called special pioneers . Judaism: Rabbi and cantor should be capitalized before a name on essay service uk, first reference. Writing A Thesis? On second reference, use only the person’s last name. Nation of Islam: Its clergymen use the title minister , which should be capitalized on first reference before a name.
On second reference, use only the rise islam paper person’s last name. Pentecostalism: There are dozens of writing an introduction with a thesis, Pentecostal denominations as well as many nondenominational churches that are Pentecostal, so titles vary greatly. Common titles are bishop, minister, elder and superintendent ; capitalize them before a name. Evangelist is another common title, but do not capitalize it, even with a name. Some clergy use the title of the Rev ., but some do not.
Protestant churches: Customs vary in different traditions. Many, but not all, use the Rev . before a clergy member’s name on first reference. Do not include the templates of a plan honorific unless you are certain it is acceptable in that tradition. Among those that do not use the Rev . are Churches of Christ and the Seventh-day Adventist Church. Some Protestants use other titles for paragraph a thesis, their clergy, including pastor , bishop or brother . Capitalize when used before a name. Quakers have no recognized ranking of clergy over lay people. History On The Cold? Their meeting officers are called elders or ministers , and these terms should be capitalized when used before a name. Many Quaker ministers in the Midwest and West use the Rev . Writing An Introduction Paragraph With A Thesis? before their names. On subsequent references to Protestant clerics, use just the last name. Roman Catholic Church: A pope should be referred to by his full papal name on suicide, first reference, as in Pope Benedict XVI . On subsequent references, use the pope , the pontiff or just his papal name (without Roman numerals), as in Benedict.
Catholics also refer to the pope as the Holy Father , a term that should be used only in writing an introduction with, quotes. For cardinals, archbishops, bishops and deacons, capitalize the business plan title when used with a name on an introduction with a thesis, first reference, as in Cardinal Bernard Law , but lowercase otherwise. On second reference, use just the person’s last name. For priests, use the Rev . before the name on first reference; on subsequent references, use just the last name. Monsignor can be substituted if a priest has received that title. Catholics commonly address priests as Father ; use this only in quotes, and capitalize it with or without a name attached, as in She said, “We asked Father what we should do.” For nuns, sisters and brothers, capitalize sister, mother or brother before the name on first reference. In subsequent references, use just the last name for those who keep surnames; otherwise, continue to use the full name, as in of a business plan, Mother Teresa . The title Venerable is applied to an introduction a thesis a person posthumously if a pope has approved the first stage in his or her official cause for canonization, as in Venerable Fulton Sheen . Sikhism: Sikhism has no clergy, but spiritual guides may be called gurus ; capitalize this title before a name. An attributive form of address given to many but not all ordained Christian and suicide term paper outline, Buddhist clergy. Writing An Introduction With? Do not use this honorific form unless you are sure that the particular denomination accepts its use. Follow AP style of the education of little questions, using the article the to precede the writing abbreviation Rev . Never use the plan Rev.
Dr. An Introduction Paragraph A Thesis? together before a name. See religious titles for guidance. Pronounced “RAHN-poh-shay.” Literally “precious one,” rinpoche is a title of respect for a Buddhist teacher, often signaling one considered to be an incarnate lama. The title of rinpoche generally follows a name, but practice varies, especially in the United States. Capitalize when used before or after a name. See lama and tulku . Title for Zen Buddhist master, literally “old teacher.” It generally follows a name, but practice varies, especially in suicide term outline, the United States. Capitalize when used before or after a name.
A spiritual leader in a tribal society who heals people by channeling spirits, often in writing with, an altered state. Sometimes referred to as a medicine man or witch doctor. It is a description rather than a formal title; do not capitalize, even when used with a name. Most Islamic clergymen use the title sheikh like a Christian cleric uses the Rev . Sheikh also is used as a secular title. Capitalize it when used before a name, but lowercase otherwise.